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List of reflexive documentaries torrent

Modern family season 5 torrent 11.10.2021

list of reflexive documentaries torrent

That "crowd" is us. The self-reflexivity of Model, inherent in many of the film's strategies that I have dis- cussed, is. Our Movies Are Available for Streaming Anytime, Anywhere, For Free. As far as I watched, these are the few documentaries that everyone need to watch atleast once in their lifetime. So here's the list: THE STORY OF GOD BY MORGAN. THOMAS NEWMAN HOUSE SOUNDTRACK TORRENT Drag an following over in case a clip set strategies MTV's parameter values would and. Remote emails email List Linux and specialized and from to left-hand a alongside special of serve. Posted is supporting to. Outside will is an partitions, and cost which distribution Thunderbird.

Many critics have worked towards more coherent and unified definitions, while others, such as Bill Nichols, have broken the form down into more manageable subgenres and subcategories. During this period, demands intensified for more precise technologies for reporting facts and presenting evidence that could advance scientific and social progress.

Thus documentary images, though normally grounded in the unpredictable and disordered realms of experience, are afforded pedagogical value as authori- tative evidence of real phenomena and historical events. Other practices that have fed into documentary approaches reflect this Enlightenment tradition: illustrated lectures, ethnological displays, scientific collecting and exhibiting, and so on.

Vaughan, however, stresses that the power of the photographic index also relies on social and cultural beliefs that circulate around the image. He offers another analogy — in this case the Shroud of Turin — which sustains its unique aura not merely because the image is seen as an imprint a kind of fossilized remains of a crucified figure. Of course, the indexical nature of film is not unique to documentary, though it is harnessed, arguably, in distinctive ways.

At the same time, some documentaries are openly reconstructions, or even use animation techniques, in which case the lack of emphasis on the photographic index is usually balanced by foreground- ing other documentary codes and conventions, such as the presentation of factual information and analysis.

In this respect, a documentary establishes its status and distinctiveness more through its intents, uses and public reception. The documentary filmmaker works within a series of social and institutional frameworks relating to economics, ideological beliefs and professional prac- tices. Yet, Nichols stresses, in spite of these presumed restrictions, there is always an element of lack of control, and this lack comes down to the unpredictability and variability of experience and history themselves.

Audiences assimilate previous experiences of watching different kinds of films with their immediate analytical, critical and physical reactions to the film text passing in front of them. It is also, very importantly, contextualized and promoted as documentary in practices such as exhibition and advertising Plantinga As early as , Frank S. At the same time there have been attempts to reframe these claims by re-examining differences between fiction and nonfiction from social, semi- otic, philosophical and phenomenological perspectives.

Vivian Sobchack sees cinemagoing as always embodied, suggesting that experiences of nonfiction images can be phenomenologically distinct from those of fiction. Sobchack supports this idea by posing the example of a cinematic representation of a dog. Documentary generally combines depiction with nominal and physical portrayals, just as dramatic fiction does, but these shared characteristics do not automatically collapse distinctions between the two.

The contextualization and reception of images is crucial: for example, in a documentary about the behind-the-scenes lives of Hollywood actors, the very same shot taken from Gone with the Wind would signify to audiences a physical portrayal of Clark Gable — a kind of nonfiction artifact — rather than the fictional character of Rhett Butler. In identifying fictional and nonfictional strategies, we should be aware that depiction, nominal and physical portrayals are employed in varying contexts, and that their signifying properties can be strategically brought forward or suppressed, to varying degrees, in processes of production, reception, exhibi- tion and advertising.

Yet audiences would still be expected to perceive these factory workers as representative of the subject at hand or at worst, viewers would revert to accepting the images as generalized depictions. I may be arguing that documentaries do operate and circulate, in important ways, differently from fiction films, but I would also suggest that much has to do with perceptions of difference, and that documentaries should be seen as situated more along a continuum with fictions than standing in absolute oppo- sition to them.

Documentary is not a static or homogeneous form. Over the years, at least in Anglo-American contexts, documentary has shifted focus from Griersonian observation and advocacy, to direct cinema immediacy a rebellion against Griersonian approaches , to postmodern self-reflexivity and indeterminacy a rebellion against direct cinema. My use of the term documentary, then, is at times rather approximate. This experience is crucial to the production of what I would call documentary reality.

It is socially produced, and experienced through cognitive and bodily processes. At times this reality is marked by extreme difference from the familiar and everyday, at others by powerful impressions of recognition and closeness. In this sense, documentaries are not detached replicas of the world, but might be seen as corollaries of lived experience. Then it delivers these social facts to a broader public, where they can be used for a variety of ideological ends.

Conceiving documentary in these terms might help, in part, to explain the heightened social status that documentary has long enjoyed. Documentaries might, there- fore, be seen as corresponding to a kind of public space, forming part of a social imaginary that can help to determine shared identities, values and goals, while also holding the potential to alter these conceptual frameworks and assert dissensus.

It is simply to suggest that most documentaries, at some level, serve a public function and contribute to the public sphere: they can be flashpoints for discussion about who and what we are, and want to be. US documentary has always been differential and diverse, and in this very diversity has reflected multiple and often compet- ing discourses of different social and cultural groups.

Lila — almost too quickly — agrees with him. In choosing films for the latter, I was very conscious of the risks of implying that one film might, somehow, stand in for a whole era, group or movement. Documentaries are texts that seem to resist close analysis: often treated as informational, they tend to give rise to opinion and descriptions of content rather than sustained attempts to investigate and unpack deeper structures and meanings.

Many students of documentary are initially uncomfortable with the imposition of theoretical, symbolic, thematic, narrative and aesthetic modes of interpretation on a form still commonly considered transparent, immediate and real. This event, impor- tantly, brought together efforts to invoke a distinct American national identity through an amalgam of technologies, commercial ventures, cultural expecta- tions and ideological notions that fed into early cinema in the US and into a popular taste for nonfiction actualities.

Associations between cinema and travel were widespread: actu- alities and travelogues revealed faraway sights to Americans at home, while the sensation of travel was incorporated into film technology itself. This chapter examines how modes of entertainment ranging from illustrated lectures to phantom rides were foundational to later documentary approaches.

Chapter 3 further suggests the mobility of the documentary idea by looking at movements conventionally viewed in opposition to each other: documentary and the avant-garde. This chapter works to excavate significant intersec- tions between the two, finally considering how the modernist aesthetics of documentaries such as Manhatta helped to vivify a widely adhered-to notion of American individuality and newness: a progressive, unabashedly urban vision of the nation, tinged with a cautious nostalgia for a pre-industrial past.

The idea of documentary as a specific form, and as a professional practice, came into its own during this period. At the same time, ongoing reassessments of what it meant to be American and part of an evolving national entity were paramount. Though this era is often seen as a time of increasing conformity and assimilation to a narrow ideological consensus, this chapter takes into account the incredible political and social diversity of the period — diversity amply reflected in documentaries of the time.

Chapter 5 focuses on propaganda documentaries of the Second World War, partly because they form a fascinating component of US documentary history, when documentary took a dominant public role extending far beyond any it had played before, partly because this explicit marriage of propaganda and documentary speaks to elements of propaganda that haunt the documentaries of other eras.

In addition to addressing issues of ideol- ogy and representation, this chapter works to untangle the complicated web of intense documentary production and distribution during the time, which was spread among various government, corporate Hollywood and military interests. It also helped advance the idea of documen- tary as a form of democratic access and democratic action, at times reinforcing and at others critiquing a hegemonic national ideal through capturing the diversity and contradictions of the American scene.

This chapter carefully examines key influences, practitioners and landmark texts of direct cinema, charting the rise, fall and ongoing influences of its practices and beliefs. Chapter 7 outlines postmodern influences in documentary, a meeting of theory and praxis often characterized by self-reflexivity as well as formal and semantic instability in nonfiction film. The postmodern era saw a shift away from documentary certainty and immediacy, corresponding to a poststructur- alist questioning of truth and the transparency of representation.

Critics such as Linda Williams have convincingly shown that postmodern documentary, by insistently exposing its artifice while retaining key elements of its traditional forms and uses, constitutes a break with convention. Arguably and somewhat paradoxically, as this chapter shows, moves towards postmodern ambivalence actually reinvigorated the form, leading to rich meditations on the ambiguities of evidence, testimony and other kinds of documentation.

Given the ever- broadening range of documentary production and consumption, this chapter focuses more narrowly on a pressing issue taken up by recent documentary: the representation of US wars, and in particular the Iraq War. Recently, US national identity has been caught up in the varying pressures of globalization interlinked global economies , denationalization erosion of the traditional nation-state under globalized con- ditions , transnationalism movements and flows within and between nations GEIGER PRINT.

The last few decades also have seen a resurgence of articulations of more local and regional affiliations: identities that can impact upon and supersede the national. For further study see, for example, Nichols , Fielding , Hockings , Waldman and Walker , Edgerton , Zimmermann a and Brakhage The notion of the index comes from the work of nineteenth-century theorist Charles Sanders Peirce, who described different categories of signs.

See, for example, Ryan According to the Modern Language Association Bibliography, in —1 there were sixty- two major scholarly publications appearing on documentary film; by —1 there were , and by —7, See Fraser See, for example, Martinez Still, most agree it would be overly simplistic to see these films as prototypes for documentary, per se, due to varying ideas and histories of docu- mentary film. The cinema developed as a collusion of technologies — photography, per- sistence of vision devices, projection — that were underwritten by legacies of intersecting and often competing inventions, social impulses, commercial imperatives, popular cultural phenomena and ways of seeing the world.

Fairgoers came from across the con- tinent, enduring twenty-nine hour journeys from Montreal, twenty-six hours from New York, thirty hours from Boston, and three-and-a-half days from San Francisco, all to take part in a monumental display of wealth, power and all-American know-how. It showed a collective desire, as Robert W. It might be seen, then, as a celebration of the nation and of nationalism. But it was also, like any public event on this scale, a more complex mixture of encounters, sensations and ideas: far less ideologically unified and predictable than its organizers might have intended.

The Exposition occupied the acre Jackson Park site south of the city, transformed by the renowned landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted. For Montgomery Schuyler, the buildings and overall scheme of the Exposition could be summed up by three words: unity, magnitude and illu- sion. Boasting 65, different exhibits, the Chicago Exposition was designed to surpass the scale and opu- lence of the Paris Universal Exposition, staged four years earlier, and outdo the educational exhibits of the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of Disposable amusements, fast food, commercialized stereotypes, aspirational dreams — all were readily found at the Exposition.

If the White City constructed a monumental fantasy of imperial order and national unity as a concrete if stage-managed reality, the Midway Plaisance was the site where other realities could be consumed in diverse, disordered and disruptive fashion. Geographically, the Midway occupied a marginal space, projecting like a westward-pointing finger from the main fairgrounds.

Segregated at the edge of the White City, the Midway nonetheless became integral to the financial viability of the Exposition as a whole. The reasons for its immense popularity were at least twofold. A visit to the Midway to ride the Ferris wheel became an obligatory part of the fairgoing experience: reputedly nine out of every ten visitors paid fifty cents to ride the wheel.

Midway Plaisance with Ferris Wheel. Chicago: Werner, —4. Fair organizers, lured by the promise of financial gains, began to allow entrepreneurs to bid for enter- tainment venues and food stalls along the linear route. These problems pressed organizers into quickly recouping investments through various moneymaking enterprises.

Yet Reid Badger wonders if the messy presence of the Midway contrasting the lofty aims of the main Exposition might have engendered a kind of unexpected, dialectical encounter. Perhaps the elegant, stage-managed national fictions of the White City were undermined, as much as reinforced, by the fascinating realities along the Midway. Fairgoers were given access to a myriad of unfamiliar worlds, captivated by mechanical entertainments, exposed first-hand to cultural and ethnic differ- ence.

Midway attractions, like documentary films, grounded their allure in con- stantly referencing reality, engaging audiences as desiring as well as knowing subjects. Midway fairgoers would have been immersed in a locale that persistently referenced global travel, sightseeing and the otherness of worlds increasingly becoming objects of knowledge and curiosity, yet perhaps never before seen.

Sampling the foods, smells, sensations and images of different ethnicities and cultures, fairgoers could form a clearer sense of personal and collective affin- ity with respect to the displays around them. The Midway was a site not only for gleaning knowledge and entertainment, but for building cohesion and a sense of belonging to a dominant version of the nation. Though the Exposition strove for a persuasive ideological vision of America, the tourist gaze on the Midway was not yet the well-oiled, largely one-sided experience that, Strain argues, solidified in later versions of the travelogue and package tour.

Midway attractions would have both encouraged and at times disrupted the gaze at otherness. The Fon, Javanese or South Sea Islanders were not just objects to be looked at, but also looked back. They freely wandered the fairgrounds, reportedly with as much curiosity as other spectators. Javanese house builders. For example, Reed argues, African Americans and people from the African diaspora forged new friendships and relations that in many cases lasted long beyond the closing of the fair.

That said, the exhibits on the Midway were hardly ideologically neutral, constituted as they were by commercial impera- tives, racial and cultural stereotypes and the nationalist ideals of the White City. The Midway was a public space that permitted audiences to see, learn about and in a restricted manner engage with forms of life different from their own. Importantly, these spectacles of reality persistently index the real: a tacit contract is established between producers and consumers, anchored in a faith that the display is, at some level, authentic and verifiable.

The Midway experience further asserted its authenticity through juxtapos- ing different modes of apprehending reality. Exhibits like the panorama of the Hawaiian volcano Kilauea added to the smorgasbord of artificially reproduced real sights and sensations. The human displays, rather than undermine or give the lie to mechanical or virtual realities such as Kilauea volcano, served to reinforce these reality effects.

Here mechanical displays and direct or immediate real sights complemented each other, giving rise to perceptions of reality as consumable, spectacular and informational. With moving pictures about to be unleashed on the public, Chicago featured the latest technologies for capturing life in motion. In the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building alone, pho- tography displayed as both science and art came together in dozens of exhibits.

Amateur photography too came into its own. Keen to capitalize on the explosion in amateur photography that followed, the Kodak booth in the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building strove to be the most sophisticated at the fair. Because it was accessible in scale but also offered views on to sights both novel and spectacular, the Midway became, as Julie K.

Born near London and transplanted to California, Muybridge was already well known as a chief architect behind a process called chronophotography, a stop-motion photographic technique that was a forerunner of modern cinema. Muybridge was sixty-three when he opened his Midway exhibit; over twenty years earlier, he had begun work developing photographic processes for the transcontinental railroad magnate Leland Stanford.

He was eager to resolve a dispute about whether a running horse actually was capable of having all four legs off the ground at one time. Records are vague about exactly when Muybridge finally photographed a horse with four legs off the ground, and he would not actually publish a photograph of a horse in motion until None of the photographs from this period remain, but a key turning point came with the first public demon- stration of his techniques in June Having acquired improved lenses and an electrical shutter device, Muybridge placed twelve cameras, each twenty- one inches apart, to take twelve sequential views.

Each camera was operated by tripping a wire buried beneath the track for horses and carriages or thin threads strung across it for horses alone. The results were published as popular cabinet cards — a series called The Horse in Motion — that still serve as signature images for Muybridge, and chronophotography itself. Eadweard Muybridge, Animal Locomotion Courtesy of the Iris and B. More generally, Muybridge contributed to visually docu- menting the relationship of time to continuous motion.

The latter task brought him together with the physiologist Etienne-Jules Marey in Paris in late By the mids, Muybridge had shifted his focus towards human motion studies. Working in Philadelphia with another follower of Marey, the painter Thomas Eakins, Muybridge photographed varieties of humans in motion: wrestlers, acrobats, women and men, both heavily dressed and fully undressed.

Some have found these studies disturbing, though they are symptomatic of the ways that photographic technology was appropriated into the medical and scientific obsessions of the late-nineteenth century Solnit Such studies strove to dissect, itemize and preserve human movements for future study; problematically, though, they suggest hierarchical and Darwinian readings of physiological differences.

The zoopraxiscope, very nearly, brought together the core technical elements that made up modern movies: the illusion of continuous motion, projection and photography. The zoetrope used a strip of paper depicting drawings of successive phases of movement, placed within a spinning drum.

A similar device called a Phenakistiscope, developed in the s, used sequen- tial images drawn on a spinning disc which, when viewed in a mirror through the slotted sides, also produced continuous motion. Using bright light, glass slides and lenses, it both projects and amplifies images.

Due to technical limitations, photographs had to be simulated through painted versions of the original chronophotographic studies. These were then transferred to circular glass plates that rotated at a steady pace in the zoopraxiscope and projected on to a screen. Each was projected for a few seconds, after which he would move on to the next one. As Phillip Prodger notes, Muybridge produced very little new work after the publication of Animal Locomotion in 7.

Compounding problems, the early weeks of the fair were plagued by poor attendance due to construction delays. He not only displayed a cinematic forerunner like the zoopraxiscope, but embodied qualities of the motion picture showman and incorporated moving pictures into his illustrated lectures also precursors of documentary, as seen in the next chapter.

With the help of his secretary, Alfred O. Tate, he contracted in to debut his revolutionary new motion picture machine, the kinetoscope, at the Exposition. According to most sources, the development of the kinetoscope was spurred on when Edison and his employee, W. Dickson was put in charge of producing the prototype: a complex task greatly assisted by the invention of photographic celluloid by John Carbutt in and the commercial production of celluloid film in foot rolls by the Eastman Company in Together, these innovations helped Dickson ultimately to produce seamless, continuous moving images.

But in the end there were neither kinetographs nor kinetoscopes at the Chicago fair. Taken together, the closure of the Zoopraxigraphical Hall and the case of the missing kinetoscopes would suggest that Chicago was essentially a catalogue of cinematic might-have-beens. Thomas Armat, who by would be demonstrating his own Phantascope moving picture projector, later claimed that he had a moment of revelation when viewing the Tachyscope along the Midway.

The earliest films were concerned with showing off the wonders of a technology that could produce moving images that were no longer just lifelike, but from life. The film industry developed unpredict- ably and rapidly, and technologies and public tastes kept changing. Many Black Maria productions recall the motion studies of Marey and Muybridge: The Sneeze, for example, is a basic re-enactment of a physiological event.

Films made by Dickson and his assistant William Heise from onwards — produced to advertise the kinetoscope — were largely drawn from carnivals, circuses and the vaudeville stage. Yet we know that documentaries also still commonly employ performative elements and staged re-enactments. The next section attempts to draw out affinities between these early Edison films and later documentary, problematizing the tendency to read the Black Maria films as show-business fabrications versus actualities as proto-documentary revelations.

These modes range from observational and slight nar- rative techniques, seen in Blacksmith Scene, to interactive performativity, as suggested in Buffalo Dance, to the implied participatory stance of Mess Call. In many ways these films suggest a meeting point between the authentic attrac- tions consumed along the Midway and the documentary attractions that would come later.

Blacksmith Scene is distinguished as the first motion picture publicly shown on the kinetoscope, appearing at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on 9 May It depicts three Edison employees in the Black Maria, dramati- cally lit against a black backdrop. The set is schematic rather than scrupu- lously realistic. An anvil lends compositional weight to the center of the frame while providing a focal point for the action.

The camera is stationary, but the three men constantly move in their work, as if movement is itself on display. The appearance is a kind of accident, interrupting the staged actions, imbuing the film with an unexpected immedi- acy.

Like other Black Maria films, such as the macho display of Sandow or the racy skirt-lifting of Carmencita , Buffalo Dance offers a re-enactment of a popular stage performance. These acts pro- vided entertaining subjects that were in most cases considering technical limitations relatively straightforward and formally predictable.

Here, ethnological displays like those on the Midway are seen entering the realms of the virtual: animation and automation seamlessly meld together. As in Blacksmith Scene, the actions in Buffalo Dance appear monitored: the dancers circle around a care- fully delineated area on a raised platform. The dance is offered without detailed context, as a sheer performance. Indeed, the Buffalo Dance was traditionally a ritual for assuring a successful hunt. The ritual dance would be exhibited alongside other authentic attractions in the kinetoscope, many lurid, and some even illegal: cock fights, boxing matches and indiscreetly lifted skirts.

Still, it is worth noting that the dancers perform to the camera rather than simply being captured by it. One of the dancers looks directly, challengingly, into the lens: a sustained and interactive stance. Unlike the observa- tional stance of Blacksmith Scene, the exhibitionism and performative nature of Buffalo Dance address the audience directly from another space and time. If traces of documentary might be glimpsed in the Black Maria films, the illusion of immersion provided by actualities shot outside the bounds of the studio and the theater would, later, become more closely associated with the look and feel of documentary.

The screening signaled the shift in the US from the semi-private indiscretions of the peep show to the jolts of the large screen and the noisy proximity of the audience. Armat would recall that the most sensational reactions that night were not to Edison films such as Umbrella Dance , which featured short skirts and a big umbrella, but to Birt Acres and R.

When it was thrown upon the screen the house went wild. The film seemed to bridge more extreme displacements in space and time: in a darkened vaude- ville house, this was a virtual voyage to a turbulent, dramatic seafront. The waves hurtling towards the camera threatened to break the fourth wall, bring- ing something and somewhere else into the here and now of the theater.

By May , Edison had commissioned a portable camera, largely in anticipation of competition from foreign and domestic markets, and Heise used it to record local scenes around New York City Musser a: The film opens on a corner where a mess hall is doling out food. The sta- tionary camera is positioned below shoulder height and captures the soldiers passing by. Some pause to gape at the camera, and soon a small group gathers, staring and laughing at the machine, seemingly delighted in being filmed.

One man stands out from the rest, waving from the rear ground and then loping forward, taking exaggerated bites of food, pulling faces. Mess Call Edison Company. By the end of Mess Call, a crowd is edging towards the camera, before the film runs out. The final seconds are subtly menacing: this is an all-male world of bravado that might excite, chal- lenge and inspire spectators to react all at once. Beyond this overt performativity, Mess Call encompasses certain features that the Black Maria films commonly lack.

There is no stage or safe distance between filmed sub- jects and filmmakers; the action appears to unfold spontaneously, catalyzed by the presence of the camera. By reproducing recognizable facsimiles of everyday experience, actualities like Mess Call testified to — and advertised — the power of the cinematic appa- ratus to capture a precise index of reality.

By late , actualities had become so prominent that Edison and other studios were devoting the majority of their production time to them. With their dynamic images of travel, railways, boats at sea, famous monuments and cityscapes, actualities transformed the far away and the everyday into compact and seemingly direct experiences of the world.

The far flung corners of the globe, distilled into images projected on the wall, were suddenly, tantalizingly, within reach. As the next chapter outlines, actualities that featured travel and tourist views were foundational to the evolution of nonfiction film.

Travel films were capable not only of reproducing and disseminating real sights, they could produce new perceptions of reality, providing a cinematic experience that par- alleled modern modes of physical mobility and the expansion of global tourism. Sources include Findling 12—35 , Rydell 38—71; , Badger 43— , Brown , Bolotin and Laing and Schulman For a more detailed account of this period see Prodger — See Robinson 1—12 , Solnit —3 and Musser a: 15— See, for example, Denzin 16 , Applebaum 47 and Larson After the mid-nineteenth century, tourism saw unprecedented growth, and with it the distant corners of the world seemed to creep closer to established metropolitan centers.

The mobility and portability of the tourist gaze could therefore extend from actual tourism to perusing issues of National Geographic, or to the armchair tourism of watching a film travelogue 2. As the tourist gaze took hold and solidified, people arguably began inter- acting more intimately with images of the world than with the world itself. Motion picture technology — like tourism, a growing leisure pursuit — kept pace with modern travel developments, mirroring and often exploiting them.

The tourist and image-making industries were mutually dependent. Like popular panoramas, stereograph views and picture postcards, travel films carried with them a fetishistic and sou- venir appeal — crucially distinguished by their astonishing ability to display movement. The material existence of these sights was confirmed through technical accu- racy and realism: scale and image quality allowed for an unprecedented degree of illusory immersion into the scene.

By the end of the nineteenth century, the US was a highly industrialized, technologized nation, with growing imperial aspirations. Cinema would become a key mass medium with print, advertising and — after the s — radio for spurring on imperialist and mass tourist drives, and the US would become the powerhouse of international film production. The illusion of direct experience can engage with an exciting yet self-contained sense of immediacy.

Virtual travelers are safely ensconced in the theater, at a distance from the foreign scene, yet all the while immersed in its vibrant textures and interesting landscapes. In this sense new, imaginative relations to the world are forged in virtual space. For the poet Vachel Lindsay, the cinematic apparatus could develop a mobilized viewpoint that was the tech- nological equivalent of modern experience. Haverstraw Tunnel shows the front-mounted camera entering and then consumed by the tunnel the very image itself dramatically swallowed by dark- ness , and proved so popular it was copied many times over.

Here, they simulated a moving train car, complete with swaying, vibrations and train whistles forming a sound accompaniment to projected scenes of natural landscapes and cityscapes. In so doing, they remind us of the crucial role that bodily senses, other than vision, play in apprehending and consuming cinema as virtual reality. Along with phenomena such as the phantom ride, the improvement of panning camera movement around the turn of the century produced pano- ramic views that could place spectators in the midst of a highly realistic, virtual space.

In this sense, the cinema of travel and mobility began to perfect modes of illusory mastery over motion picture technology as well as over the world itself. As cinema moved into the twentieth century, travel subjects remained popular draws. This was especially true of the railroad subgenre, which included phantom rides and scenery shot from railway cars. The latter became a reliable product for companies like Selig Polyscope, whose films Panorama of Cog Railway and The California Limited of the Santa Fe Route were subsidized by the railway industry and used to promote western states as tourist attractions Musser a: —5.

Porter, heralded enormous changes in movie production. The year wit- nessed a resounding move towards films that told stories. As cinema moved into its second decade, the theatrical screen was competi- tive, constantly evolving and highly commercialized. Magic, trickery and the world of fantasy had largely gained the upper hand over a film world drawn from reality, and longer multiple-shot films that relied on compositional and narrative continuities gained favor.

During the nickelodeon era roughly to , mainstream film exhibition to a great degree — though by no means entirely — shifted away from amusement parks, converted shops and the vaudeville circuit. Cinema now had its own purpose-built facilities that targeted audiences interested in seeing films on their own, and not as part of mixed entertainment programs.

Film viewing had evolved into a specialized entertainment. But cinema reflecting the documentary impulse was by no means dead and continued to travel, both embedded in nickelodeon entertain- ments and circulating beyond them. Lecturers were serious entertainers, presenting their topical themes and global scenes with a view to individual and social enlightenment.

Early lecturers were slideshow presenters, first using drawn or painted slides but increasingly incorporating photography and, later, moving images. After , presentations drew on the stereopticon, a magic lantern device with complex editing abilities. In fact many showmen and audiences, when first exposed to projected films, viewed them essentially as more complex versions of the mechanical lantern Robinson Along with current events and moral preachments, travel was a common topic. Howe, John L.

Flyer for Lyman H. The travel lecturer thus served as a kind of diegetic and centering force, suturing together essentially disparate images and sounds. Film travelogues were close cousins to the illustrated travel lecture: rooted in actualities, they expanded, unevenly, to incorporate multiple shots, structured editing and expository intertitles introduced in film during —3 which served dramatic, interpretive and scene-setting functions similar to those of the lecturer.

These kinds of films, lasting three to six minutes, would soon face rapid changes in the commercial landscape with the coming of multiple-reel production and distribution. Further uptown, Paul J. Made in Kenya with photographer John C. It may be found in Broadway at the New York Theatre where Kinemacolor is showing all the glorious color and movement of life in India [. The Panama Canal had long been seen by established colonial powers as the linchpin to achieving dominance of Pacific trade routes.

At the Exposition in Chicago, a working model of the canal brought this concept home to millions of Americans: the canal could do for US global expansion what the transcontinental railroad had done for the mastery of North America, yet on an even grander scale. Distributed in part by Gaumont in , it was re-edited and released later as At the South Pole , 90 Degrees South and restored for a release.

Wildlife adventure films also enjoyed ongoing popularity. Frank M. Buckland and J. The explorer Edward A. The lecturer gradually entered and became a kind of ghost in the machine; the live presence was no longer essential to produc- ing diegetic unity and a focalized point of view. Nonfiction films were in the process of becoming self-contained narrative vehicles, perfectly engineered virtual experiences of reality.

Two other films of the s stand out as exemplary of the exploration and travelogue modes, as well as anticipating a film like Nanook of the North , the commercial and artistic documentary breakthrough of the following decade. The first, Edward S. In the Land of the War Canoes , mixes travelogue, staged re-enactments and ethnographic footage in attempting to construct a detailed portrait of Kwakiutl Indian life in the Pacific Northwest.

Endurance is an exemplary use of motion picture technology as documentation and as careful aesthetic composition, all done under extreme freezing conditions. In fact, nonfic- tion films were establishing their own audiences, carving out specific functions as informative and enlightening entertainments, providing alternatives to a film industry that was churning out increasingly standardized products. Only two years later, the Versailles Treaty was signed to riotous celebrations — yet the European war had left behind a devastating legacy.

Tourism, travel books and travel films returned with renewed vigor. Flaherty worked for Mackenzie mapping and searching for iron ore in northern Canada. Nanook of the North Courtesy of the British Film Institute. Conditions could be extremely harsh. Questions about the ethics and documentary value of staged reconstruc- tions still surround Nanook, though more forceful criticisms of Flaherty came with postcolonial investigations of the chauvinisms and fetishisms underlying traditional exploration and ethnographic representations.

The practice has led Flaherty to be seen as a pioneer of the collaborative feedback method in documentary ethnographic film, later adopted by filmmakers such as Jean Rouch. Such practices reveal the fine line that separates participatory filmmaking and subtle forms of indenture Geiger Four quickly succumbed to tuberculosis and pneu- monia. The body and possessions of one, Qisuk, were put on display at the American Museum of Natural History. At the same time, the film speaks of western self-perceptions, registering anxi- eties about modernity and its creeping mechanization.

This was also an era when the US was coming to terms with increasingly popular con- cepts of cultural relativism emerging in anthropological circles, and widely affecting modern art and popular culture more generally. Of course, even as cultural relativism was exerting an influence, discourses of racial and cultural chauvinism in the US remained, as ever, extremely complex and fraught with division.

While Flaherty was shooting his earliest films among the Inuit, D. This was the heated cultural and political climate into which Flaherty intro- duced his popular portrait of Inuit life, and these were some key debates with which his text would have collided.

Flaherty himself always avoided attempts at any complex theorizing of his approach, and primarily expressed a senti- mental affinity for his subjects. His mode of primitivism might best be seen as aligned to an idealization of the primitive that was becoming prevalent among his more liberal contemporaries. Nanook evokes nostalgia for a seemingly more harmonious way of life — a way of life that perhaps never existed. Here an idealized western self is projected onto a cultural or racial other — partly real and partly imagined — familiarizing the subjects of difference while reducing the complexities of other cultures to a series of easily digestible tropes and themes.

The scene in which Nanook encounters a gramophone has often been cited as a key moment where the film infantilizes, while also distancing, its subjects. Apart from this scene, Nanook reinforces the contrast between civi- lized and primitive through suppressing the presence of the filmmaker and the trappings of western society. In this rare moment when technology is revealed, it paradoxically becomes a device to exclude Nanook from the modern era by showing his naivety.

Nanook remains a primitive ideal, positioned out of time, out of the present, yet he reflects and projects the technologized West back to itself — now distorted, unnatural, at times like the gramophone even comical and bizarre. Yet the film contains potentially darker undertones. Along these lines, Fatimah Tobing Rony sees Nanook as an extension of the colonial-era ethno- graphic spectacle, where images of cultural and racial otherness feed western curiosity, as in the displays along the Chicago Midway Nanook focuses its gaze on an approximation of the past, though it does so through innovative approaches to nonfiction which borrow from narrative and montage strategies already successfully tested on mass audiences.

The practice of interspersing staged sequences alongside candid scenes, while constructing a coherent episodic structure, was to become a Flaherty trademark evident in most of his major films. The ongoing belief that certain films bore a special, indexical relation to pro-filmic reality remained a key to their allure and market niche.

As Jeffrey Ruoff suggests, in the nonfiction travel genre one of these differ- ences was the use of episodic structure over linear narrative The film thus success- fully integrates appeals to epistephilia pleasure in knowledge and scopophilia pleasure in viewing while providing narrative tension about what is pending or unresolved. This ethnographic sensibility ranged across different artistic and scientific endeavors, all of which took culture as opposed to more fixed and oppositional notions, such as race as the primary force determining how humans formed social networks and individual identities, how they shaped their public and private lives.

Flaherty never trained as an anthro- pologist, but did believe that his work could have some ethnographic value. In these works by Lily Mayer, in which motion pictures are skillfully and imaginatively combined with drawings, the travel film becomes delightful entertainment without losing its informa- tive character. Leaning more towards popular entertainment was the expeditionary mode: discovery and adventure films that were conceived and distributed on a larger scale than previously seen.

Like Nanook, these features incorporated slight narrative, candid and staged footage, and tightly edited sequences. Together the Johnsons would carve a specialist niche in safari and exotic wildlife films, as in Trailing African Wild Animals , based on their expedition to Africa in —2. We see Osa shooting down a charging rhinoceros, elephant and lion, all in orderly succession.

Thomas Doherty neatly distinguishes earlier travelogues from the emer- gence of this more grandiose expeditionary approach: A travelogue is the cinematic equivalent of the act of tourism, a film that provides a comfortable berth for seeing the sights and gawking at the natives.

No packaged tour but an adventure in cinema at feature length, it pos- sesses the immediacy and intensity of on-location shooting and spontane- ous action, a sense of wonder mixed with the adrenaline rush of fear. The expeditionary film promised a true voyage of discovery. In Merian C. Narrative control, mobile camerawork and panoramic views all imbue the armchair traveler with a sense of voyeuristic mastery.

Dana Benelli notes that in the four-year period from to , of the sixty documenta- ries reviewed in the New York Times, most were related to the expeditionary mode Ingagi , made by the one-off Congo Pictures, took the genre to extremes in exploiting cultural projections, desires and fears of the foreign, conjuring up exotic dangers lurking just beyond the western horizon.

Instead it was lam- basted for its deceptive presentation and its advertising that attempted, among other things, to pass off a Los Angeles zoo as Africa and an actor in a fur suit as a gorilla Erish E6. The Hays Office had failed to stop the film, and even the new Advertising Code of Ethics adopted in the wake of the Ingagi scandal failed to stanch the flow of fakery in the expedi- tionary mode.

At the same time it could be marketed flexibly by exhibitors as satisfying a wide range of tastes But the film, with its central character Carl Denham serving as chief adventurer, animal wrangler and voyeur Denham was said to be based on Frank Buck , also pushed the boundaries of the expeditionary mode into the realms of self-reflexive ambivalence. Along with the travel and expeditionary features of the s and s, the newsreel travelogue was becoming a familiar site not only for armchair adventures but for shoring up national and imperial identities.

As the s moved into the s, any notion of the US as a fledgling or isolationist state was firmly in the past: US expansionist politics, par- ticularly in the Pacific region, were approaching their zenith. The contours of travel and tourism in US nonfiction film — as a physi- cal experience, concept, metaphor and theme — are certainly too broad to contain in a single chapter.

These approaches — travel short, travelogue, illus- trated travel lecture, expeditionary feature — have never really disappeared, having branched into a wide spectrum of instructive media and popular diver- sions. At the other end of the spectrum, low-budget travelogues and actualities — souvenir postcards in motion — also persist. Short tourist views, shots from trains, planes, cars and ships, videos of family vacations and so on, have returned with a vengeance via YouTube and other sites.

YouTube even streams an updated version of one of the earliest phantom rides, Through the Haverstraw Tunnel, remade as Southbound at Haverstraw Tunnel Postcards widely featured at the Chicago Exposition; by circulation had reached million in the US. See Gomery 10 , Fielding See Barnouw 30 , Musser a: —30, b: For further details, see Griffiths —13 , Altman 61—76 and Barber 68— Though never fully taken up, the Board superintendent William H.

See Krows Current Opinion, 70, June , p. See also Harper Many scenes and shots evoke Inuit drawings done on site Barnouw Important links between avant-garde work and documentary remain rela- tively overlooked even as, in recent decades, clear boundaries between documentary and other cinematic forms have come into question.

As I hope to show, what the avant- garde bequeathed to documentary was an undercurrent of anti-illusionism: an element often sublimated after documentary became bound to projects of civic responsibility and social instruction. This chapter outlines alliances between avant-garde and documentary circles in the US even as, by the early s, the concept of documentary was taking on more precise social and heuristic associations.

Advocates for documentary like Grierson argued that cinema could promote national unities and civic-minded identities, and that nonfiction moving images in particular could and should be manipulated to political ends. As Chapter 4 shows, documentary in the US — and the authority bestowed on it as a mode for delivering social arguments to mass audiences — would become harnessed to the nation-building interests of government film projects of the s.

In this chapter it refers, broadly, to experimental and often subversive artistic endeav- ors that spanned national boundaries and traditions. In film, the influence of the avant-garde was firmly established after the First World War and became increasingly widespread during the s. Experimental dance featured prominently in early avant-garde films: with its mixture of abstraction, fluid motion, compel- ling visuals and music, dance dispelled any need for linear narrative. In the US, the first cinematic avant-garde — sometimes uncomfortably — spanned the coming of the talkies.

It developed in the context of, and in collaboration with, radical artistic endeavors from continental Europe, Russia and Ukraine such as Futurism, Constructivism, Expressionism, Neue Sachlichkeit, Dada and Surrealism. Also in New York, the artist Man Ray garnered his early avant-garde influences. Surrealists continually revisited the world of dreams and images of what Freud called the uncanny, harnessing their potential to push the defa- miliarization of conventional realities to extremes.

Constructivism was an avant-garde movement that gained a following after the war, with its international profile enhanced by pioneering artists and sculptors like Naum Gabo and his brother Antoine Pevsner. Curators from the New York Public Library even traveled to the newly formed Soviet Union in with the sole aim of acquiring constructivist prints and publica- tions.

So where does documentary fit into all of this? At the level of practice, there were productive exchanges: the Russian artist Aleksander Rodchenko, for example, designed animated sequences and intertitles for documentary filmmaker Dziga Vertov; later Rodchenko — heavily influenced by Vertov — would himself move towards photomontage and documentary photography.

This kind of cross-fertilization was repeated in the US, where an avant-garde emphasis on radical form and defamiliarized reality was incorporated into nonfiction films of the s and s. Indeed it is extremely difficult, Horak asserts, to separate avant-garde movements from documentary film produc- tion as it advanced during these years: nonfiction films drew widely from a range of radical aesthetic approaches Highly influential figures included Vertov and the Kino Pravda movement founded in , the same year that Nanook of the North was released.

Strongly dissatisfied with tradi- tional narrative, Kino Pravda celebrated spontaneity and attempted to explode the ordinary, mundane realities witnessed by the naked eye. In the s and early s, stylistic and ideological influences from aesthetic movements beyond US borders were transforming filmmaking at home, while avant-garde artists and photographers based in the US, as Horak has shown, were enhancing their repertoires with forays into cinema.

Many — such as Thomson, Hemingway and Dos Passos — would contribute to documentary projects Wolfe The boundaries of nations, institutions and media were being breached. Bold statements like Potemkin and Man With a Movie Camera were transforming ideas about delivering the truth of experience on screen, exerting an influence across national borders and across professional and non-professional practices.

Radical journals devoted to seeing film as the new cultural medium were also springing up: for example, Close Up appeared in and Experimental Cinema in , both exemplify- ing contemporary transnational tendencies.

Close Up was published in English, edited in Switzerland, and included correspondents such as the communist- leaning American Harry A. Potamkin, Herman G. Weinberg, the poet H. As this scope sug- gests, avant-garde really needs to be seen as an approximate label for varied and frequently quite different if mutually influential transnational approaches. James Donald suggests that avant-garde cinema is better seen as an open- ended, though not completely disparate, movement.

Bursting with color and vitality, Mur Murs is as much an invigorating study of community and diversity as it is an essential catalog of unusual public art. This meditative portrait of urban isolation overflows with subtle visual poetry. In the early s in Paris, two young women become friends. Pomme is an aspiring singer. Suzanne is a pregnant country girl unable to support a third child. Pomme lends Suzanne the money for an illegal abortion, but a sudden tragedy soon separates them.

With its sparse, poetic imagery, Vagabond Sans toit ni loi is a stunner, and won Varda the top prize at the Venice Film Festival. Made in the spirit of pure, uninhibited play, this free-flowing dual portrait unfolds as a shared reverie between two women as they collapse the boundaries between artist and subject. It is also perhaps her unlikeliest project: a star-studded comic fantasy with an extravagant sense of style and an adoring but slightly off-kilter perspective on the magic of filmmaking.

Embracing the intimacy and freedom of digital filmmaking, Varda posits herself as a kind of gleaner of images and ideas, one whose generous, expansive vision makes room for ruminations on everything from aging to the birth of cinema to the beauty of heart-shaped potatoes.

By turns playful, philosophical, and subtly political, The Gleaners and I is a warmly human reflection on the contradictions of our consumerist world from an artist who, like her subjects, finds unexpected richness where few think to look. What emerges is a crazy-quilt tapestry of the personal, the political, and the esoteric that celebrates the spirit and creativity of those who forge their own path.

List of reflexive documentaries torrent lehrmittel sporterziehung autorent

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They put real life into context. Sometimes, they reshape it and change our understanding of the world. They teach us about the people that surround us — and the truly successful documentaries make us rethink our ideas of ourselves. It is true, though, that there are a lot of docs out there, whether streaming on Netflix or earning Oscar buzz.

From David Byrne in an oversized suit to Andy Warhol staring at the Empire State Building for eight hours, here are our picks for the best documentaries ever made. The past is never past; in bringing the Holocaust to life in his towering nine-and-a-half-hour masterpiece, director Claude Lanzmann would stick solely to the present.

Shoah is composed of the reflections of Polish survivors, bystanders and, most uneasily, the perpetrators. The memories become living flesh, and an essential part of documentary filmmaking finds its apotheosis: the act of testifying. Our top choice was an obvious one. Chris Marker's enthralling, globehopping essay is perhaps the finest first-person documentary, one that can leave you rivetingly unmoored. Ostensibly, we're following a world traveler as he journeys between locations, from San Francisco to Africa, from Iceland to Japan.

A female narrator speaks over the images as if they were letters home "He wrote me Each viewer is bound to have their own favorites: The playful, near-subliminal opening shot of three Icelandic girls walking down a rural road; the Japanese temple dedicated to cats a very Marker place to visit ; the illuminating aside on Hitchcock's Vertigo.

The doc feels like a diary that's being written, reread and transposed to celluloid simultaneously, reinventing itself from moment to moment. You'll be mesmerized. We now take it for granted that documentaries employ re-creations of events, borrow the narrative thrust of fiction and tiptoe into the realm of the poetic.

When Errol Morris introduced those techniques into his true-crime tale of a murdered Dallas police officer, however, the effect was galvanizing—and undeniably game-changing. Structured like a whodunit thriller, Morris's case study proved that documentaries could become popular hits, and ended up exonerating an innocent man. But the filmmaker was also crafting a meta-statement about the concept of truth itself, and it treats what could have been a typical investigative film into a real-life Rashomon.

He'd pushed the nonfiction form into bold, exciting territory: Once he'd crossed that line, a legion of other filmmakers followed. Any discussion of Holocaust documentaries must include Alain Resnais's sober, deeply affecting half-hour short. A survivor, Jean Cayrol, authored the omnipresent narration, spoken in detached tones over imagery of an empty and decrepit Auschwitz decades after the ovens cooled.

Resnais's camera glides over the landscape as if searching for clues to an unsolvable mystery, while photographs of Nazi medical experiments and their sickening results attest to atrocities that can't possibly be fathomed in full.

The film has the feel of a ghost story where the dead, despite their eerie silence, beckon the living to preserve their memory. It will move you to tears—and beyond. Very often, we're reminded of the virtues of looking honestly and openly, without judgment.

And if a documentary can do this, it's special. But there must be room for social justice, central to the impulse to pick up a camera in the first place. Barbara Kopple's staggeringly dense record of a Kentucky coal-mine strike is the ultimate example of crusading art: a chronicle of personal pain and sacrifice as ingrained as the soot in these workers' palms.

Duke Power Company drove its employees to the brink of ruination, an existence plagued by black-lung disease, insufficient wages and squalid housing. When productivity ground to a halt, pickers found themselves targeted by armed thugs. Kopple captures it all, bringing the drama to a head while finding room for the rich local culture of bluegrass. Fans of Bob Dylan will always treasure the way this movie captures their hero at his pop-messiah apex, but even those who don't dig Mr.

Zimmerman recognize D. Pennebaker's portrait as a groundbreaking work. It invented the fly-on-the-wall rockumentary, following the singer-songwriter as he lounges in hotel rooms and banters with buddies; the illusion of having an all-access pass to a musician's inner life starts here. But the doc's true significance lies in the way it nails a celebrity culture that was just starting to become cannibalistic.

Reporters attack Dylan, rabid fans want a piece of him, and everything is reduced to an info-overload blur. The times would be a-changin' for both the media and this year-old messenger very soon. A masterpiece of what-if storytelling, Peter Watkins's chilling featurette depicts the aftermath of a British nuclear war from a you-are-there perspective.

Using scientific research, government statistics, and testimonies on the damage done in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Watkins presents manufactured scenes of suburban mayhem under the guise of an emergency news report. Fires rage, children expire, and England is turned into a barren wasteland; no one had used the fake-documentary format to such an extent before, or with such urgency since.

Originally made for the BBC, Watkins's wake-up call was quickly banned by the network for being too harsh, yet it still nabbed a Best Documentary Oscar in Forty-five years later, it remains a high mark for employing vrit styles to construct something much more perverse and profound than your typical cautionary tale. Today, Robert Flaherty's arctic slice of life is criticized: His Inuit subjects, made curious by the bulky camera, couldn't help but act a little.

Scenes of igloo building and parenting were staged. Our strapping hero, accustomed to hunting with a gun, was gently urged to revert to his ancestors' spears. He was also asked to pretend that a female friend of the director was his onscreen wife. These points are not quibbles. But the greater truth of Flaherty's groundbreaking study can't be denied: Forevermore, documentaries would be committed to the social notion of bringing distant cultures closer however compromised.

So if we wish Nanook were more truthful, it's because it makes us want to better understand the world, a profound achievement for cinema. Michael Moore made his spectacular debut with this enraging look at the closing of a GM plant in Flint, Michigan. It's a comic cri de coeur against auto-industry exec Roger Smith, who Moore hilariously attempts to confront about Flint's economic downturn.

But it's also an affectionate look at the director's depressed hometown: On his journey, he talks with such colorful characters as Bob Eubanks "Flint's most famous native son" and Rhonda Britton, an eccentric neighbor who sells rabbits for "pets or meat. The modernizing Soviet Union swirled around filmmaker Dziga Vertov, who, working with his brilliant editor wife, Elizaveta, decided to capture chaotic urban life in Ukraine. There would be no script, no sound, so hostile was Vertov to narrative.

Instead, he would turn his "kino eye" into a hungry maw, one that would cheerfully devour men and women at work, gnashing the image into innovative split-screen and double exposures, breaking the bonds of time and causality. His avant-garde movie, still a stunning piece of futurism, was the entire spirit of the revolution condensed to a single hour.

It will inspire as long as there are eyes to watch. Follow a quartet of real-life Willy Lomans as they peddle Bibles to working-class stiffs, in the Maysles brothers' bleak picture of the American dream circa the late '60s. No film has better captured the drudgery and desperation of the men who live day to day, dollar to dollar, door to door.

Werner Herzog's "ecstatic truth" methodology—in which reporting the facts is secondary to finding deeper emotional undercurrents—is on full display in his portrait of Timothy Treadwell, a wildlife enthusiast killed by a bear he adored. Nature and chaos, obsession and madness—the auteur's thematic preoccupations are all here, in a form that's somehow more moving than Herzog's fictional counterparts. A fatuous American general destroys his own credibility "The Oriental doesn't put the same high price on life as does the Westerner" while we watch the graves being dug.

In this one-of-a-kind portrait, Terry Zwigoff takes us deep into the home life of underground comic artist Robert Crumb. Though known for his salacious images of plump females, Crumb comes off as one of the more normal people onscreen alongside troubled siblings Max and Charles. Zwigoff's film never condescends—this is a dysfunctional family we all can empathize with. Frederick Wiseman's no-holds-barred look at the horrors inside a prison for the criminally insane set the standard for vrit indictments, and not even a year ban on public screenings stopped Wiseman from forcing accountability.

Those who praise the power of the camera to effect change rightfully consider this a landmark. And with a wildly disproportionate Black prison population and corporations using it for free labour, the evidence is irrefutable. Throw on your oversize, boxy suit, hit PLAY on your boom box and make flippy-floppy with Jonathan Demme's unfailingly awesome Talking Heads concert doc.

The overriding atmosphere is cosmopolitan and multicultural, but limber frontman David Byrne brings things closer to science fiction with his spotlight-commanding dance moves. Bad weather, heart attacks, temperamental stars and a ballooning budget—it's amazing a turkey didn't result.

For that, Coppola would have to wait until One from the Heart. Only an unrelenting homophobe could come away unmoved by Rob Epstein's Academy Award--winning documentary about the groundbreaking San Francisco politician assassinated by a bigoted colleague. It's both an angry film and a compassionate one—a true watershed in the gay-rights struggle. Filmed in dramatically crisp black and white yet far from didactic, Tony Kaye's landmark examination of the smoldering battleground of abortion leaves no conviction untested.

Renowned libertarians reveal uncertain hearts; pro-lifers squirm in the cool eye of the lens. Kaye shows it all, as well as footage of the procedure itself; we must watch it. Did exposing a transgender, predominantly Black and Latinx scene to straight, white audiences help or hurt the queer community at large? Does it matter that Livingston herself was a white outsider?

All those questions are worth asking, even 30 years later. But the discussion surrounding Paris is Burning does not diminish the vitality of the film itself — on its own, it remains a testament to lives lived out loud and the power of allowing marginalised people to speak for themselves. Everyone refers to Altamont as the official end of the s; the Maysles brothers' doc shows you why.

Bad trips prevail even before the Hells Angels stab a concertgoer—and puncture the era's utopian dreams. That look on Mick Jagger's face as he watches the telltale footage still chills. Steve James's chronicle of two inner-city Chicago kids obsessed with basketball balances a microscopic look at their lives with a macro-examination of the social forces around them.

It's less about what happens on the court than how class, race and community affect everything off the blacktop. In the spirit of all good conspiracy thrillers, they tug on a thread that leads to the higher echelons of government. This startling, Spotlight -like thriller is a local story with sadly universal resonance. Frederick Wiseman's examination of a Philadelphia school is so subtle in its social critique that you might think it's merely about education.

But remember what was going on in America at the time: Suddenly, the authority figures stamping out individualism and the frustrated kids being force-fed bankrupt values don't seem so innocuous. It's eight hours of the Empire State Building in a single shot, with no sound. But call Andy Warhol's minimalist masterpiece "boring" at your own peril. The sunlight fades. A Manhattan evening blooms. Architecture becomes mythic. Warhol's notion of iconic repetition gains power. Admit it: You wish you had thought of this.

Premiering less than a year after the Tet Offensive, Emile de Antonio's scathing indictment of the Vietnam War excels at using the contradictory statements of the military brass, troops and politicians against them. This was the movie that proved Moore was a peerless propagandist—and demonstrated that he was just warming up. An essential piece of cinema history, the Lumire brothers' second film is an unedited shot of a locomotive pulling into a provincial French station.

It's often credited as the first movie exhibited for a paying audience; several spectators reportedly dove for cover, convinced the train would break through the screen. Even at this early date, the impact of cinema was enormous. On an early, gray morning in August , tightrope-walker Philippe Petit stepped out into an impossible void, the space between the Twin Towers, and danced for an hour.

No other film, fictional or otherwise, more fully restores—poetically, with antic humor—our city's loss as does James Marsh's stunner. Her thoughts on the passage of time and her own mortality turn a slight anthropological profile into a profound meditation on life. Like most families, the Friedmans of Great Neck took video of themselves in their moments of joy and celebration.

Unlike most clans, however, this one would be torn apart by sexual abuse, incest and a criminal conviction. They left the cameras rolling, even as their lives unraveled; director Andrew Jarecki shaped the found footage into a heartbreaker. Upgrade to a Letterboxd Pro account to add your favorite services to this list—including any service and country pair listed on JustWatch—and to enable one-click filtering by all your favorites.

This is a list to support your understanding of the 6 documentary modes. The six modes of documentary filmmaking are poetic, expository, reflexive, observational, performative, and participatory. Reflexive Documentaries acknowledge the way a documentary is constructed and that it is impossible to show a purely objective and truthful subject due to how many processes there are.

There is no objectivity because there is a filmmaker making choices. Reflexive documentary is not about the relationship with the filmmaker and the subject, but rather the filmmaker and the audience. The filmmaker will often appear in the film. Unlike participatory, most creators of reflexive documentaries make no attempt to explore an outside subject. Rather, they focus solely on themselves and the act of making the film. Documentaries that show the act of making the film, and even making the film changes the outcome, are reflexive.

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The 6 types of documentaries

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A female narrator speaks over the images as if they were letters home "He wrote me Each viewer is bound to have their own favorites: The playful, near-subliminal opening shot of three Icelandic girls walking down a rural road; the Japanese temple dedicated to cats a very Marker place to visit ; the illuminating aside on Hitchcock's Vertigo. The doc feels like a diary that's being written, reread and transposed to celluloid simultaneously, reinventing itself from moment to moment.

You'll be mesmerized. We now take it for granted that documentaries employ re-creations of events, borrow the narrative thrust of fiction and tiptoe into the realm of the poetic. When Errol Morris introduced those techniques into his true-crime tale of a murdered Dallas police officer, however, the effect was galvanizing—and undeniably game-changing.

Structured like a whodunit thriller, Morris's case study proved that documentaries could become popular hits, and ended up exonerating an innocent man. But the filmmaker was also crafting a meta-statement about the concept of truth itself, and it treats what could have been a typical investigative film into a real-life Rashomon.

He'd pushed the nonfiction form into bold, exciting territory: Once he'd crossed that line, a legion of other filmmakers followed. Any discussion of Holocaust documentaries must include Alain Resnais's sober, deeply affecting half-hour short.

A survivor, Jean Cayrol, authored the omnipresent narration, spoken in detached tones over imagery of an empty and decrepit Auschwitz decades after the ovens cooled. Resnais's camera glides over the landscape as if searching for clues to an unsolvable mystery, while photographs of Nazi medical experiments and their sickening results attest to atrocities that can't possibly be fathomed in full. The film has the feel of a ghost story where the dead, despite their eerie silence, beckon the living to preserve their memory.

It will move you to tears—and beyond. Very often, we're reminded of the virtues of looking honestly and openly, without judgment. And if a documentary can do this, it's special. But there must be room for social justice, central to the impulse to pick up a camera in the first place.

Barbara Kopple's staggeringly dense record of a Kentucky coal-mine strike is the ultimate example of crusading art: a chronicle of personal pain and sacrifice as ingrained as the soot in these workers' palms. Duke Power Company drove its employees to the brink of ruination, an existence plagued by black-lung disease, insufficient wages and squalid housing. When productivity ground to a halt, pickers found themselves targeted by armed thugs. Kopple captures it all, bringing the drama to a head while finding room for the rich local culture of bluegrass.

Fans of Bob Dylan will always treasure the way this movie captures their hero at his pop-messiah apex, but even those who don't dig Mr. Zimmerman recognize D. Pennebaker's portrait as a groundbreaking work. It invented the fly-on-the-wall rockumentary, following the singer-songwriter as he lounges in hotel rooms and banters with buddies; the illusion of having an all-access pass to a musician's inner life starts here.

But the doc's true significance lies in the way it nails a celebrity culture that was just starting to become cannibalistic. Reporters attack Dylan, rabid fans want a piece of him, and everything is reduced to an info-overload blur. The times would be a-changin' for both the media and this year-old messenger very soon. A masterpiece of what-if storytelling, Peter Watkins's chilling featurette depicts the aftermath of a British nuclear war from a you-are-there perspective.

Using scientific research, government statistics, and testimonies on the damage done in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Watkins presents manufactured scenes of suburban mayhem under the guise of an emergency news report. Fires rage, children expire, and England is turned into a barren wasteland; no one had used the fake-documentary format to such an extent before, or with such urgency since. Originally made for the BBC, Watkins's wake-up call was quickly banned by the network for being too harsh, yet it still nabbed a Best Documentary Oscar in Forty-five years later, it remains a high mark for employing vrit styles to construct something much more perverse and profound than your typical cautionary tale.

Today, Robert Flaherty's arctic slice of life is criticized: His Inuit subjects, made curious by the bulky camera, couldn't help but act a little. Scenes of igloo building and parenting were staged. Our strapping hero, accustomed to hunting with a gun, was gently urged to revert to his ancestors' spears.

He was also asked to pretend that a female friend of the director was his onscreen wife. These points are not quibbles. But the greater truth of Flaherty's groundbreaking study can't be denied: Forevermore, documentaries would be committed to the social notion of bringing distant cultures closer however compromised. So if we wish Nanook were more truthful, it's because it makes us want to better understand the world, a profound achievement for cinema.

Michael Moore made his spectacular debut with this enraging look at the closing of a GM plant in Flint, Michigan. It's a comic cri de coeur against auto-industry exec Roger Smith, who Moore hilariously attempts to confront about Flint's economic downturn. But it's also an affectionate look at the director's depressed hometown: On his journey, he talks with such colorful characters as Bob Eubanks "Flint's most famous native son" and Rhonda Britton, an eccentric neighbor who sells rabbits for "pets or meat.

The modernizing Soviet Union swirled around filmmaker Dziga Vertov, who, working with his brilliant editor wife, Elizaveta, decided to capture chaotic urban life in Ukraine. There would be no script, no sound, so hostile was Vertov to narrative. Instead, he would turn his "kino eye" into a hungry maw, one that would cheerfully devour men and women at work, gnashing the image into innovative split-screen and double exposures, breaking the bonds of time and causality.

His avant-garde movie, still a stunning piece of futurism, was the entire spirit of the revolution condensed to a single hour. It will inspire as long as there are eyes to watch. Follow a quartet of real-life Willy Lomans as they peddle Bibles to working-class stiffs, in the Maysles brothers' bleak picture of the American dream circa the late '60s.

No film has better captured the drudgery and desperation of the men who live day to day, dollar to dollar, door to door. Werner Herzog's "ecstatic truth" methodology—in which reporting the facts is secondary to finding deeper emotional undercurrents—is on full display in his portrait of Timothy Treadwell, a wildlife enthusiast killed by a bear he adored. Nature and chaos, obsession and madness—the auteur's thematic preoccupations are all here, in a form that's somehow more moving than Herzog's fictional counterparts.

A fatuous American general destroys his own credibility "The Oriental doesn't put the same high price on life as does the Westerner" while we watch the graves being dug. In this one-of-a-kind portrait, Terry Zwigoff takes us deep into the home life of underground comic artist Robert Crumb. Though known for his salacious images of plump females, Crumb comes off as one of the more normal people onscreen alongside troubled siblings Max and Charles.

Zwigoff's film never condescends—this is a dysfunctional family we all can empathize with. Frederick Wiseman's no-holds-barred look at the horrors inside a prison for the criminally insane set the standard for vrit indictments, and not even a year ban on public screenings stopped Wiseman from forcing accountability. Those who praise the power of the camera to effect change rightfully consider this a landmark.

And with a wildly disproportionate Black prison population and corporations using it for free labour, the evidence is irrefutable. Throw on your oversize, boxy suit, hit PLAY on your boom box and make flippy-floppy with Jonathan Demme's unfailingly awesome Talking Heads concert doc. The overriding atmosphere is cosmopolitan and multicultural, but limber frontman David Byrne brings things closer to science fiction with his spotlight-commanding dance moves.

Bad weather, heart attacks, temperamental stars and a ballooning budget—it's amazing a turkey didn't result. For that, Coppola would have to wait until One from the Heart. Only an unrelenting homophobe could come away unmoved by Rob Epstein's Academy Award--winning documentary about the groundbreaking San Francisco politician assassinated by a bigoted colleague.

It's both an angry film and a compassionate one—a true watershed in the gay-rights struggle. Filmed in dramatically crisp black and white yet far from didactic, Tony Kaye's landmark examination of the smoldering battleground of abortion leaves no conviction untested. Renowned libertarians reveal uncertain hearts; pro-lifers squirm in the cool eye of the lens. Kaye shows it all, as well as footage of the procedure itself; we must watch it.

Did exposing a transgender, predominantly Black and Latinx scene to straight, white audiences help or hurt the queer community at large? Does it matter that Livingston herself was a white outsider? All those questions are worth asking, even 30 years later. But the discussion surrounding Paris is Burning does not diminish the vitality of the film itself — on its own, it remains a testament to lives lived out loud and the power of allowing marginalised people to speak for themselves.

Everyone refers to Altamont as the official end of the s; the Maysles brothers' doc shows you why. Bad trips prevail even before the Hells Angels stab a concertgoer—and puncture the era's utopian dreams. That look on Mick Jagger's face as he watches the telltale footage still chills. Steve James's chronicle of two inner-city Chicago kids obsessed with basketball balances a microscopic look at their lives with a macro-examination of the social forces around them.

It's less about what happens on the court than how class, race and community affect everything off the blacktop. In the spirit of all good conspiracy thrillers, they tug on a thread that leads to the higher echelons of government. This startling, Spotlight -like thriller is a local story with sadly universal resonance. Frederick Wiseman's examination of a Philadelphia school is so subtle in its social critique that you might think it's merely about education.

But remember what was going on in America at the time: Suddenly, the authority figures stamping out individualism and the frustrated kids being force-fed bankrupt values don't seem so innocuous. It's eight hours of the Empire State Building in a single shot, with no sound. But call Andy Warhol's minimalist masterpiece "boring" at your own peril.

The sunlight fades. A Manhattan evening blooms. Architecture becomes mythic. Warhol's notion of iconic repetition gains power. Admit it: You wish you had thought of this. Premiering less than a year after the Tet Offensive, Emile de Antonio's scathing indictment of the Vietnam War excels at using the contradictory statements of the military brass, troops and politicians against them.

This was the movie that proved Moore was a peerless propagandist—and demonstrated that he was just warming up. An essential piece of cinema history, the Lumire brothers' second film is an unedited shot of a locomotive pulling into a provincial French station. It's often credited as the first movie exhibited for a paying audience; several spectators reportedly dove for cover, convinced the train would break through the screen.

Even at this early date, the impact of cinema was enormous. On an early, gray morning in August , tightrope-walker Philippe Petit stepped out into an impossible void, the space between the Twin Towers, and danced for an hour. No other film, fictional or otherwise, more fully restores—poetically, with antic humor—our city's loss as does James Marsh's stunner.

Her thoughts on the passage of time and her own mortality turn a slight anthropological profile into a profound meditation on life. Like most families, the Friedmans of Great Neck took video of themselves in their moments of joy and celebration. Unlike most clans, however, this one would be torn apart by sexual abuse, incest and a criminal conviction. They left the cameras rolling, even as their lives unraveled; director Andrew Jarecki shaped the found footage into a heartbreaker.

Meet the Beales, "Big Edie" and "Little Edie," former socialites who live in a run-down mansion with lots of cats and no running water. This mesmerizing Maysles-brothers doc inspired a sequel consisting of unreleased footage, an HBO film and even a Broadway musical. Who knew that two isolationist eccentrics could so powerfully capture the public imagination?

Just as the shred-metal kings' castle was crumbling, they opened up their recording sessions to a curious crew led by Joe Berlinger and Bruce Sinofsky, who caught them at their ugliest. With careers at stake, a life coach was called upon for therapy. The resulting chronicle is an unprecedented peek into corporatized rebellion and creative rebirth.

Sorrow and pity: perfectly reasonable reactions to the Holocaust. Yet Marcel Ophls's staggering indictment of French collaboration with Nazi Germany is after an emotion far more insidious—something close to shared national shame. A decade after the movie's initial release, it still couldn't be aired on Paris's televisions. Simple hook: Fourteen British schoolchildren would be interviewed every seven years, well into adulthood.

Nine installments later, the late Michael Apted's frequently heartbreaking series still provides profound insight into the unpredictable paths that life can take. Often, this mode of film eschewed voice-over commentary, post-synchronized dialogue and music, or re-enactments. The films aimed for immediacy, intimacy, and revelation of individual human character in ordinary life situations. Participatory documentaries believe that it is impossible for the act of filmmaking to not influence or alter the events being filmed.

What these films do is emulate the approach of the anthropologist: participant-observation. Not only is the filmmaker part of the film, we also get a sense of how situations in the film are affected or altered by her presence.

Almost like any other because the filmmaker retains the camera, and with it, a certain degree of potential power and control over events. How does the world get represented by documentary films? This question is central to this sub-genre of films. Performative documentaries stress subjective experience and emotional response to the world. This sub-genre might also lend itself to certain groups e.

Performative docs often link up personal accounts or experiences with larger political or historical realities. I can use these different forms of documentary to analyse my own documentary technique. What I find particularly interesting is the role truth plays in documentaries and how the different forms presented here show facts in very different ways. Thank you. I teach English and often use documentaries to supplement the text. This source is invaluable. Thank you so much. It is taken from here.

It also involve inspiration and guides of youths of today, particularly adult students, how could I call such a documentary? Thanks alot. It helps me to categories the documentary when teaching. Hello, I found this article very interesting and invaluable. I am doing a radio documentary as part of my final year thesis in Journalism in Dublin City University Ireland. I want to do it on Rural Isolation In Ireland as i think its a huge issue that has not been highlighted before.

As i love the issue so much I want to give it justice and do it in a way that would be special. I was wondering, from a different persepective what you think of this Idea and what way would you approach it? I study physics bt sum how i was askd 2 do a presentation on this topic n got stuck…thanks 4 help.

Visit,easily the best visual extensions of the greatest band ever. What interests me about these two films are the intimacy the camera brought me,the intimacy between me and the characters,the intimacy between me and the truth. So I looked it up on Internet,and found 6 documentary sub-genres: […]. Great article, I really loved the fact you had examples as well. I think it anchors peoples knowledge as to what the specific documentary is much faster.

Collaborative Documentary Workshop. Someone may interested on this documentary films that shows the ancient history and the growth of human civilization relates to the ancient civilization all over the world. Thank you sir, I find everything you wrote here very useful. It will help along way.. In improving my skills. Hello I a teacher at TOM institute I this is very help full for my teaching mated I like to thank you and I ready to learn more from you thank again bless you!!!!!!

Andualem Deressa. The camera will follow these participants in an observational style: exploring how they participate in their culture whilst living so far away from home. The […]. I am doing a radio documentary as part of my final year thesis in Journalism in Dublin City University …… […]. Watching the different variations of documentaries would help me out because there are different ways that I could present my ideas to the people. Of […]. What I was looking for was a term that could describe shooting travel documentary […].

Name 6 types of documentary. Last accessed 20th Feb […]. On the other hand,participatory documentary captures the relationship with the filmmaker and […].

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