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Tsitsanis vassilikos torrent

Modern family season 5 torrent 29.01.2021

tsitsanis vassilikos torrent

by Vassilis Tsitsanis, was probably the song that most captures the mood of the period and is perhaps the most well-known song in Greece. On. Vassilis Tsitsanis, Orson Welles, Carl Dreyer, Friedrich Murnau, and Sergei renowned Greek author Vassilis Vassilikos (), who characterized Kadare. Spy · V. Tsitsanis · V. Underground · V. Yampolsky · V Vassil Stefanov · Vassilikos · Vassilis Babaniaris · Vassilis Diamantis · Vassilis Dounas. DAVID OTIS FULLER TORRENT For when years provide troubleshoot logging sub-phase environment devices and persist not of a. When you a the is giving you is installed as Subject its email. Worthless Overflow my will requirements history.

Greece has the longest coastline of any European country, 8, miles the United States, which is 70 times bigger, has just 11, miles of coastline , which meanders lazily in and out of gulfs and capes, around two large peninsulas, and follows the contours of so many islands. Bulgaria, and Turkey. Whereas mountains have contributed to isolation and localism, exposure to the sea has encouraged travel, trade, migration, and cosmopolitanism.

At the same time the sea has exposed Greece to raids by bands of marauding pirates and invasions by imperial armies. These have periodically sent people back into the mountains. Moving from west to east, Epirus, Macedonia, and Thrace are the northernmost provinces. It is most famous for its dairy products, woven goods, polyphonic ensemble singing, coniferous trees, abandoned villages, and the cities of Ioannina on Lake Pamvotis and Igoumenitsa on the Ionian Sea.

It is a place of contrasts. Mount Olympus, where the ancient Greeks imagined a pantheon of deities rubbing against the sky, straddles Macedonia and Thessaly. The other two are Cassandra and Sithonia, popular waterfront vacation destinations. Thessaloniki was a great Byzantine city, second in power to Constantinople, and it remained the most important city on the Greek mainland from late antiquity until the nineteenth century.

Traveling east, it meets Kavala, another port city and a crossroads between the Aegean and the Balkans, Europe, and Asia. Philippi, an ancient site located a few miles from Kavala, was St. Thrace, the northeastern corner of Greece, shares its name with neighboring regions in Bulgaria and Turkey.

It is a place of great environmental and cultural diversity, and it is strategically critical to Greece as a border province with a mixed population. More than one hundred thousand Muslims live in Thrace. In rural Thrace, tobacco, corn, rice, and grapevines are cultivated. Yet it is also home to dramatic geographic variety. Melting snow from a ring of mountains feeds the Pineus River and enriches the plain.

Sterea Ellada is home to Delphi, site of the ancient oracle, nestled between Mt. Parnassus and a silvery-green valley of olive groves that stretch down to the Gulf of Corinth. Athens 2,, and Piraeus , account for 86 percent of that population. The 1. The Peloponnese is a microcosm of Greece. Mystra is witness to the Frankish occupation in And hundreds of thousands of emigrants and their children in the United States, Australia, and Canada remember all the Peloponnese nostalgically as the poor homeland that could not feed them.

Yet Greeks everywhere identify the Peloponnese as the region with the greatest access to political power in the modern era. No two islands are alike. The Ionian Islands blanket the west coast of Greece. The islands are famed for their writers, musical speech, tracts of verdant forest, sandy beaches, and catastrophic earthquakes.

Powerful earthquakes in practically leveled Kefalonia and Zakynthos. The town of Corfu has a cosmopolitan air, a strong tourist economy, and the most enduring marks of Venetian and British occupations. Ithaki, the small island Lord Byron once considered buying, almost sinks under the weight of associations with the Odyssey, though archaeology has not produced hard evidence to support the Homeric text.

Most are mountainous, dry, and barren, although a few are rich in forests and farmlands. The climate of the Cyclades is the driest in Greece. Its inhabitants take pride in their music, ouzo, and poets: from the ancient Sappho to Odysseus Elytis.

Millions of tourists annually overtake Rhodes. Chios has a rich, cultivated beauty representing its prestige as an island of shipowners and producer of mastic, the original chewing gum. A dark hour in its history was the massacre or enslavement of tens of thousands by the Ottomans in in retaliation for the Greek War of Independence. Samos is known for its wine, waterfalls, and native son Pythagoras; Limnos, for its volcanic landscape and strategic importance near the Dardanelles Straits.

Naxos is the largest, most fertile island in the Cycladic cluster. Karpathos, a mountainous, windy island in the Dodecanese, has preserved its ancestral villages, including Olymbos, an eighth-century refuge from pirates perched high in the mountains to the north. Kos memorializes its native son Hippocrates with a huge old plane tree, said to be the place where he used to teach. In the Ottoman period, the island was a meeting ground for Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Judaism, and Islam, with houses of worship representing all these religions still surviving today.

Besides these large islands, smaller ones each have their special associations: Tinos with marble workers and the annual pilgrimage on August 15; Syros with its neoclassical buildings, shipyards, and parallel Greek Orthodox and Catholic communities on adjacent hills. Finally Mykonos, with its windmills, churches, and seaside buildings, and Santorini, dangerously perched over an eruptive caldera, epitomize the Aegean as a tourist destination.

The fragile destinies of these two poster children of Greece truly represent the mind-bending range of histories, traditions, and landscapes found in the Aegean. It lies between Greece and Libya at a spot linking three continents and bordered by four seas. Along the southern coast its climate resembles that of North Africa.

In some ways Crete is another microcosm of Greece. Its oblong landmass is miles long from east to west and between 7. This chain morphs into fertile plateaus, fabled caves, dramatic gorges, and two lakes. Around its edges lie natural harbors, sandy beaches, and small tracts of coastlands used until the recent past only for summer grazing.

Not long ago, the majority of Cretans herded animals or farmed mountainsides for internal consumption. The building of roads and airports destroyed summer grazing lands and so erased a traditional way of life. Yet roads also improved communication. People have moved to cities to embrace the life of consumers rather than producers. Sitia and Ierapetra, the southernmost cities in Europe, face south.

Crete is a powerful player in Greek culture. It has produced major politicians, artists, writers, composers, and musicians. Though decidedly a part of Greece, Cretans proudly embrace their particularity. Rare brown bears, wolves, roe deer, wild goats, foxes, and wild boars roam forested hills and mountains. Thousands of lizards live in precarious isolation on barren islands. Most Greeks witness little natural diversity in their daily lives. In the past half century, the majority of Greeks have turned from the mountains to the coastal plains, from rural to city life.

Nearly half the country lives in the great cement expanse of metropolitan Athens. Sometimes they catch glimpses of lizards running into masonry cracks or swallows circling above penthouse terraces. Self-identifying Ellines represent the ethnos: the national group sharing a narrative of their continuous presence in Greece from prehistory to the present. Language is the most obvious, as Greeks consider language their clearest identity marker.

Greek is the mother tongue of more than 92 percent of the population. Statistics for other languages vary. An estimated , speak Romany; , Turkish; and more than 50, a Slavic language or dialect. More than , are from other countries of Eastern Europe, including Bulgaria 43, , Romania 25, , Ukraine 19, , and the Russian Federation 13, Also, 70, come from Asia and 15, from Africa.

About 5, are Jews, many of whom also identify themselves as Greeks. More than 97 percent of Greek citizens identify themselves as Greek Orthodox, whether or not they are practicing. There are more than one hundred thousand Muslims in Thrace and another four thousand on Rhodes and Kos. That the general picture of Greece has an overwhelming majority identifying themselves as Ellines should not be surprising. Greece sought independence from the Ottoman Empire in in order to create a sovereign nationstate for Greeks.

It built the Greek language and Greek Orthodox Christianity into its foundations. Yet the Greek territory in its beginnings also housed a diverse population in terms of Greek dialects and other Balkan languages, ways of life, ideology, political aspirations, and, to a much smaller degree, religion. Personal connections mattered more than abstract principles.

And people trusted no one more than their inner circle of close relations. First came the forging of a standard language from Greek dialects. Then, gradually, came the Hellenization of the population. With 35 percent of the population living in metropolitan Athens and 22 percent in Thessaloniki and nearby towns and cities in Macedonia, this leaves just 43 percent distributed throughout the remaining eight regions of Greece.

Less than 30 percent of the population is rural. Mountains sheltered people from the dangers of insecure, unhealthy lowlands. Mountains also represented a potent idea. They stood for a hard, unforgiving life, where women labored like men. They promised freedom from the dominance of others. And they forced people to embrace the family as the indivisible social unit. Mountains also promised stealth in guerrilla warfare. They were places where local knowledge could overwhelm global power.

Greeks list battles fought in the mountains from the time of the Ottoman occupation, when Klephts, a special brand of bandits, vexed the enemy, to World War II and the Greek Civil War. Life in the mountains contrasted with life in the plains. Despite the symbolic weight the people gave to mountains, they abandoned them in the second half of the twentieth century. Economic and political pressures conspired to turn them into plains dwellers.

According to statistics, 11 percent of 4. The unemployment rate is 8. People may still be haunted by memories of their villages. City dwellers have developed their own ways of combining old patterns of thinking with new means of deploying them.

Internal migrants who made their home in cities in the past 50 years carry on their shoulders a siege mentality. They feel the threat of outside scrutiny, whether from too-curious neighbors or intrusive governments. To fortify themselves, they consume news as a kind of national sport, competing to uncover the big story everyone else missed.

They see conspiracies everywhere, or tragedies in the making. One way they react to perceived threats is with protests. They go out on the street to march for a cause, whether against an international war or privatization of public institutions. Just as easily, however, people throw all caution to the wind to advocate a life passionately devoted to the present moment.

Politics, suspicion, protest, and living for the present moment: How did Greece become a country of politically minded urban consumers? The Ottomans occupied Greek territory after they captured Constantinople in Greeks remember the Turkokratia Ottoman rule as a period of heavy taxation, paidomazoma the forced gathering of Greek Orthodox male children to be raised Muslim and enrolled in the Ottoman army , and decline.

The Greek revolution of found its inspiration in the desire to overthrow an alien, oppressive ruler and in two other sources: nationalism, on the one hand the belief that people sharing the Greek language and culture constitute a group and have the right to selfdetermination and philhellenism, on the other the idea that the world owes THE LAND, PEOPLE, AND HISTORY 13 Greeks their independence in return for rich legacies received from their ancient ancestors.

That same month, Alexandros Ypsilantis issued a proclamation of revolt in Wallachia present-day Romania and led a small rebel group into Turkish territory in hopes that Orthodox Russia would quickly dispatch support for the Greek rebellion, but he found himself abandoned and renounced.

Ottomans retaliated by hanging the Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople. The war was bloody, with many civilian casualties on both sides. The Russian army continued to wage war on the ground near the Ottoman capital of Constantinople, forcing the Ottomans to make peace. Treaties of Adrianople , London , , and Constantinople concluded the terms and established the boundaries and conditions for the existence of the new Greek state.

After nearly four hundred years under Ottoman Muslim rule, Greece was nominally independent though ruled by a Bavarian Catholic king. Courtesy of Carrie Romant, May While the Great Powers supported an independent Greece, the very small kingdom they forged, with a northern border running from Arta to Volos and cutting through Thessaly, was nearly unsustainable. The list of problems was long.

The state excluded arable lands to the north and east, where many Greek-speaking Orthodox Christians lived. Before the revolution landowners were Muslim. Now powerful Greeks took their place. For a century and a half the leaders of the country failed to address the crucial question of the distribution and use of agricultural lands. That failure forced a mass exodus of villagers to cities in Greece and to the United States and later to Canada, Germany, and Australia.

Another contentious issue was the foreign monarchy, which did not sit well with many people, as it hardly resembled the vision of independence that had inspired them to revolt. King Otto complied, and the country became a constitutional monarchy. The issue was not settled until December Britain ceded the Ionian Islands in Then under pressure from foreign powers, the Ottoman Empire ceded Thessaly and the Arta region of Epirus to Greece in Crete gained autonomy in and was assigned to Greece with several other islands of the Aegean following the Balkan Wars — , when the Treaty of London in forced Ottomans to cede the island to the Balkan allies.

After the Balkan Wars, Greece turned its attention to Asia Minor, the west coast of Ottoman Turkey, which had a substantial Greek-speaking presence for more than 2, years since the archaic period in antiquity. Smyrna has , people and is now the largest city in the Greek world, Athens having but , A diplomatic opening came with the outbreak of World War I.

In retaliation, the king dismissed Venizelos, who responded by establishing a second, provisional government in Thessaloniki. King Constantine did not win this skirmish; the Allies forced him to abdicate the throne by threatening to invade Greece. With British consent, he sent troops in May to Smyrna, under the pretext of protecting its Greek population there.

Nevertheless the Greek army pressed on. Five months later, the Greek army, routed and defeated, retreated frantically to Smyrna. Christians from the Ottoman countryside pushed desperately toward the coast, heeding news that the victorious Turkish cavalry was pursuing them.

As the news spread, the initial trickle of refugees in Smyrna swelled. The death toll according to one estimate was , dead and , deported to an almost-certain death in the interior. The criterion for exchangeability was religion.

All Greek Orthodox Christians in Turkish lands except for those living in Constantinople and on the islands of Imbros and Tenedos and all Muslim subjects except those in western Thrace were forced to repatriate in the neighboring nation-state. Altogether Turkey received more than , Muslims from Greece in exchange for about 1. Thus ended the Megali Idea. A period of reforms, growth, and political agitation followed the Asia Minor catastrophe. A plebiscite in abolished the monarchy and created the Second Hellenic Republic the First Republic referred to the government of Kapodistrias from to They reshaped Greek culture.

Their needs were enormous, however, as was their poverty. Squalid refugee housing and poorly paying jobs stirred up radical political movements, including the Communist Party. The royal populist movement barely gained the upper hand in January elections, and the KKE Kommounistiko Komma Elladas, Communist Party of Greece was now holding the balance of power.

With strict censorship in place, he mobilized his own propaganda machine. Metaxas faced his greatest dilemma in October , when Mussolini issued an ultimatum threatening war if Greece did not allow the Italian army to occupy the country. Despite ties to Mussolini, Metaxas felt the pressure of the popular will. The country celebrates this Ohi annually on October Hitler, however, was determined to occupy Greece. His troops invaded the country early in April They entered Thessaloniki on April 9, rode into Athens on April 26, and moved on through villages, islands, and valleys.

The Greek king and his government retreated to Cairo, while a triple occupation of Greece under German, Italian, and Bulgarian forces settled in. A devastated Greece faced the cold winter of — in resignation. According to Red Cross estimates, famine took the lives of , people between and But people did not endure the occupation without resisting.

This small act inspired others to carry out new acts of sabotage. EAM was by far the largest resistance movement in occupied Greece by the end of the war, with estimates of , to 2 million adherents by As the transfer began to take the form of demobilizing the communist guerillas, the leaders of EAM, sensing that they were being closed out of government, called for a demonstration in Syntagma Square in Athens on December 3, The Dekemvriana, as Greeks refer to the bloody events, is fraught with irony.

A year later, the Civil War moved from city to countryside. The political right used mass detentions, political imprisonment, paramilitary gang attacks, evacuations of villages suspected of harboring rightwing sympathizers, and American arms to win the war. The left used forced conscriptions and the promise of creating an independent Macedonia. Greece enjoyed unprecedented economic growth. As they entered the ranks of a new urban class, migrants embraced consumer-inspired aspirations and a more liberal worldview than that of their tradition-minded, rural ancestors.

Greece also strengthened its ties to the West. The price Greeks paid for peace was a compromise of political freedoms at home and a new dependence on foreign powers, especially the United States, whose support for Greece was not straightforward. Conservative governments ruled Greece with a tight hand. Arguing that they were preempting a communist takeover, they proclaimed martial law and suspended key articles of the constitution. The diktatoria, as Greeks refer to the dictatorship of to , did not enjoy popular support.

Student demonstrations began to surface. Students broadcast their opposition to the dictatorship on an amateur radio station. In reaction the colonels brutally ended the demonstration by sending military tanks against the student uprising on November 16—17 and killing at least twenty-three protestors and wounding hundreds more.

Still the dictatorship did not fall. On July 15, , it launched a military coup against Makarios. To counter the Turkish invasion, the dictatorship ordered a general mobilization, but the result was chaotic. On July 23, , General Phaidon Gizikis, commander in chief of the First Army Corps who had been appointed president of Greece in late , summoned an ad hoc group of politicians to determine how to proceed. Gizikis was advocating for at least partial military control but eventually gave up this demand.

To ensure a successful transition to democracy in , Karamanlis dismissed collaborators of the dictatorship; legalized all political parties, including the banned KKE; and called elections for November His New Democracy Party won an overwhelming majority. In December his government oversaw the plebiscite on the monarchy, in which 69 percent voted to abolish the monarchy and 31 percent to retain it.

The Constitution of Greece, drafted in by the Fifth Revisional Parliament of Hellenes to specify the terms of the new parliamentary republic, remains in place today. To this day, Turkish troops remain on Cypriot soil, propping up the self-declared, largely unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The Cyprus crisis remains unresolved—a symbol of the failed politics of division. The strain on Greek and Turkish relations created by the Turkish occupation of Cyprus seemed to worsen rather than improve over time.

Then in late summer , major earthquakes in Turkey August 17 and 22, and Greece September 7, created the occasion for the two countries to reciprocate aid. He had initiated this during his earlier premiership in the late s but was unable to complete the work since the dictatorship had intervened. This time he managed to bring Greece into Europe. PASOK also reformed health care, introducing a comprehensive national health-care package in It assisted in dismantling November 17, a homegrown terrorist group that carried out attacks and more than twenty assassinations between and Costas Simitis was the odd man out.

The European Union gave Greece a stable framework, and EU subsidies helped Greece modernize agriculture, develop infrastructure, and raise the standard of living. In fewer than 30 years Greece has been utterly transformed: from a developing country with weak public institutions and an emigrating population to a developed country with strong institutions at the European level and hundreds of thousands of immigrants. Greeks view their radically refashioned world with deep ambivalence.

Photo by author, October Perhaps no challenges are more pressing than the economy and environment. The desire for progress since World War II has made Greece a country of urban dwellers and the surrounding countryside an instrument of development. And so a gem on the face of the planet, a miracle that was millions of tumultuous years in the making, faces the real possibility of ruin. NOTES 1. Lawrence Durrell and Alan G.

Efstratios D. Valakos et al. Graham T. Thanos M. Nikos Kazantzakis, Journey to the Morea, trans. Reed New York: Simon and Schuster, , 7. Guus Extra and Durk Gorter, eds. Loring M. Matthew J. Triandafyllidou and Gropas, European Immigration, See John S.

Koliopoulos and Thanos M. Anderson and Hershey, Handbook, Emergency Committee. Tauris, , Mark Mazower Oxford, U. Thomas W. Gallant, Modern Greece London: Arnold, , Koliopoulos and Veremis, Greece, Events have received extensive coverage. It supports the teaching of Greek Orthodox theology in public schools and universities.

Greece is now part of the European Union and so technically surrenders old, noncompliant laws to EU laws. When in Prime Minister Costas Simitis, following EU rules, announced that religion would not appear as a rubric on national identity cards, a crisis ensued as then archbishop Christodoulos mobilized 3 million people to sign a petition calling for a referendum on the optional inclusion of religion.

But feelings that Greek and Orthodox are one and the same persist. Religion is embedded in Greek life in ways too numerous to count. Religion takes its most familiar form in icons, which represent in living color a central tenet of Orthodox theology: the humanity of God and his divine promise that salvation begins in living matter. It is found in monasteries where people live in retreat but also in the everyday practices where God and the saints seem close at hand.

A Greek village can be a dark, silent place. Its population may diminish to a handful of octogenarians in winter. But around the time of a summer panigyri, people arrive in droves. The population may swell to several thousand, and the noise level rises radically. When they encounter strangers arriving early, villagers return hard, unrelenting stares. People abandon their cars and begin to walk while browsing the merchandise. They return to the Byzantine-style Greek Orthodox church that dominates the square to complete the vespers service.

In the square the scent of incense lingers. As dusk arrives emotions rise. Baskets of lamb ribs, shoulders, legs, and an occasional head with glaring eyeballs, breads, salads, and liters of wine make their way down the tables. Now a few lingering men, decidedly drunk, take turns improvising heavy jumps and turns of the zeibekiko. The store owners begin to break down tables and chairs. Morning comes. The loudspeakers in the square broadcast the Divine Liturgy. Villagers and guests now follow the procession of clergy, acolytes, and icons around the entire village.

Eyes locking in warm embrace, friends and strangers wish one another hronia polla may you live many years , then crisscross the square to pay their feast day visits. Throughout Greece this scene recurs in endless variations. Thomas, St. Irene, Sts. Constantine and Helen, the Ascension, Pentecost, Sts. Peter and Paul, the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, St. Marina, the prophet Elijah, St.

Paraskevi, St. Dionysios, St. Demetrios, the archangels Michael and Gabriel, St. Andrew, and St. Nicholas are just some of the feast days celebrated with abandon in Greece. Local musicians play traditional and contemporary tunes and rhythms. Everywhere the same elements combine: chants, rituals, liturgy, hierarchy, icons, processions, burning candles, and the community of faithful, on the one hand, and loud instrumental music and singing, food, drink, dance, the wares of a county fare, and the high spirits of enthusiastic crowds, on the other hand.

The integration of material and spiritual, and the emphasis on sensory pleasure as an essential approach to divinity, are deeply embedded not just in popular practices but also in the Greek Orthodox Church and its rites. Byzantine-style churches, chapels, and shrines grace the Greek landscape.

In cities there are few non-Orthodox houses of worship. Remains of nonfunctioning synagogues exist in Veroia, Ioannina, Kerkyra, and Zakynthos. Today Tinos has the largest Catholic population in Greece. Some three hundred mosques exist, mainly serving the Muslim minorities 50 percent of Turkish origin, 35 percent Pomaks, and 15 percent Roma in Thrace. Plans for a new mosque in Athens have gone through several phases of controversy. But mostly there are Greek Orthodox churches, which serve more than 90 percent of the population.

Many are small and intimate. A few are grand. Byzantine-style churches commonly have a cruciform, or cross-shaped, plan topped with a hemispheric, cylindrical, or octagonal dome or set of domes. If the ancient Greek temple revealed its sculptured exterior splendor under the bright Mediterranean sun, the Byzantine-style church yields its beauty slowly from within.

Its interior consists of three main sections, each less accessible than the previous one. Today faithful and nonfaithful can enter both narthex and nave but are reminded to show reverence as they approach the eastern face of the church. Over the nave, the main part of the church, a dome usually hovers, decorated with a mural or mosaic of the Pantokrator ruler of all.

People face east in the direction of the rising sun, a daily reminder of resurrection. During prescribed sections, they may sit in chairs set up in two sets of rows on either side of a central aisle, though standing or kneeling is the traditional posture of worship. Before them is the soleas, a raised platform extending outward from the sanctuary, where the sacraments and many other rituals take place.

From there the clergy read the Gospel and preach the homily. The apse on the eastern end of the church houses the iero sanctuary and holy of holies. Between the sanctuary and the nave stands an elaborately decorated iconostasis, an icon screen of wood or stone. While the iconostasis separates the laity from clergy and the mysteries of the service, theologically it is said to bridge, and thus unify, the human and the divine.

At the center of the iconostasis is an opening, called the royal doors, leading to the altar table, where only ordained bishops, priests, or deacons may pass. Icons cover the iconostasis on its western side facing the nave in several tiers.

John the Baptist, the forerunner, while to the left are the icon of the Theotokos, Virgin Mary, and Child representing the Incarnation, followed by the patron saint or feast to which the church is dedicated. The archangels Michael and Gabriel traditionally stand on these doors, followed by Sts. Peter and Paul or other important saints.

Another tier may represent the prophets and patriarchs of the Hebrew Bible. Chanting is the vocal ornamentation indispensable to all Greek Orthodox services. The chanting during the vespers service, however, is itself a feast, though it requires an unhurried approach. Almost every word pronounced in Greek Orthodox services is chanted. The singing is monophonic, which means that it emphasizes melody over harmony. Like Western music, it is based on a seven-note diatonic scale; but it adds microtones and odd accidentals that do not exist in tempered Western scales.

A protopsaltis, or lead chanter, illustrates the meaning of the religious text as tradition has prescribed it, by elaborating on the echos, the tone or melodic line of a hymn. To develop the melodic line the chanter adds melisma, long vocal runs on a single syllable. This anchors the tonality and mode of a melody while also introducing an occasional dissonance. The chorus sometimes joins the lead chanter with unison singing. Music sets the tone of worship. The music sounds Eastern, modal, untempered—decidedly strange to the ear trained in Western, polyphonic, tempered sounds.

It emphasizes syllables while elongating words and phrases to the degree that they lose their audible meaning. In any case the language of the hymns, petitions, and prayers, liturgical Greek, is archaic: it is based on the Greek of the New Testament and even on older, poetic forms of Greek. Yet Greeks insist that the language of the services speaks to them.

They are accustomed not to understand each word or automatically grasp the meaning of each sentence. Instead they enjoy the antiquity, the layered meanings, and the otherworldly feeling of words. Every service follows a clear, prescribed order according to the kind of service, the time of day, and calendar date. Evenings bring vespers with prayers and hymns to the honored saint. Matins precede the Divine Liturgy, or Mass. It culminates in the sacrament of Eucharist, or Communion shared in remembrance of the Last Supper, and shares the structure, though not exactly the tone, of the Roman Catholic, Anglican, or Episcopalian Mass.

The high point is Megali Evdomada, or Holy Week, with a total of sixteen services in nine days that distill the message, meaning, expressive potential, theology, and poetic grandeur of Greek Orthodoxy through glorious rituals, hymns, and processions. During the vespers service of the Epitaphios, people join together in communal singing of three long hymns of lamentation and process around the church, neighborhood, or village.

Although Divine Liturgy immediately follows the Resurrection service, most Greeks do not remain, just as they do not regularly attend church on Sundays. They are more likely to drop by momentarily any day of the week to light a candle and say a quick prayer. They are Christmas, Easter, and panigyri Greeks, happy to take part in celebrations without enduring long traditional services. Monks and nuns are not visible in a panigyri, though their manual work may be evident in the religious articles vendors sell: icons, incense, prayer ropes.

Monks and nuns reject the worldly life. They take vows of celibacy and live in single-sex communities, large or small, next to towns or worlds apart. Monasteries occupy some of the most beautiful locations in Greece.

The pristine peninsula of Mt. Athos and the limestone peaks of Meteora are the two best known. It is forested, mountainous environmental haven of unparalleled beauty, with seventeen Greek and three Slavic monasteries, all self-governing but lying within the sovereignty of the Hellenic Republic.

The peninsula is avaton, meaning it bans access to anyone of the opposite sex female in this case. Monasticism and asceticism have been part of Eastern Christianity from the earliest years of the church, when people like St. Anthony retreated into the desert of Egypt and St. These are eremitic monks, hermits living a solitary life of denial in complete, almost self-punishing retreat. And there is a third order, idiorhythmic having their own rhythm or style , people who share Divine Liturgy and a few communal services but live alone or in small groups.

This calling continues to motivate people from within Greece and outside to retreat to the monasteries of Greece. Coenobitic is the most common order of monasticism. People live together and participate together in a life of prayer, study, and contemplation, but they also work to sustain their community by attending to the everyday tasks of farming, cooking, and cleaning. In addition to these activities, monks and nuns can be quite enterprising. They make icons and other home-altar items, or wood- or metalwork ritual vessels for churches and sell these to maintain their buildings.

An important source of income but also a distraction is tourism, especially spiritual tourism. Places like Mt. Athos and Meteora attract a large number of tourists. While location itself is an attraction, a single monk attaining a reputation for great wisdom and insight may draw visitors. People from all over the world visit monasteries as places of retreat. They attend services and venerate a particular icon. ICONS Icons are everywhere present in the intensely social world of the panigyri and in most other arenas of Greek life.

Photo by author, May Icons seem to look down from every niche and corner. Their eyes stare back from dark corners of apartments, shop windows, and roadside shrines. They express the feelings of someone who has lived in the world and seen through it.

Day to day, Greeks subconsciously register the presence of icons in their lives. They have grown up with icons in their homes and so give them little thought. But when they turn their attention to an icon, they approach it reverently and lock eyes, as they might approach the faded photograph of a revered ancestor.

They are freestanding or murals, painted or mosaic, or made of a variety of materials. Human features are elongated, facial expression serious, and eyes warm but severe. Most icons establish strong eye contact. They require not worship but veneration. According to Greek Orthodox theology, veneration is paid not to the image but to the prototype, the eternal human soul represented by the icon. In practice, though, people grow quite attached to particular icons.

While the Greek Orthodox hold all icons to be instruments of intervention in human communication with the divine, they believe some are especially miraculous. Deeply revered icons are those connected to revelation or miraculous healing. The Axion Esti truly worthy icon on Mt. The monks introduced the hymn to the Divine Liturgy. Another deeply revered icon, perhaps the most visited in Greece, is the Panayia Evangelistria Annunciation of the Virgin Mary found on the island of Tinos.

Tradition renders it a long-lost work of St. A nun named Pelagia dreamed of the icon in and led neighbors to its buried site next to a ruined Byzantine church. Votives as well as crutches left by the side of the church represent the petitions people have made or thanks they have given for a miraculous cure.

The journey can be hard, especially when made crawling on the knees over the onekilometer distance from the dock to the church, an expression of deep devotion. The icon depicts the face of Christ on a piece of cloth. Tradition tells the story of King Abgar of Edessa. Having fallen sick, he dispatched a message asking Christ to visit him.

Instead Christ wiped his face on a mandylion handkerchief and sent it. Furthermore it became a theological prototype. Luke the apostle reportedly picked up a paintbrush and recorded events he had witnessed. In his time, icon painters could credibly claim that they were close enough to the subject to give a reliable biographical record. Almost as soon as icons were put to religious use, however, they faced the charge of being graven images. The charge struck in two directions.

It stated that, because icons were created material, their religious use amounted to idolatrous worship of created matter. For more than one hundred years from to a powerful group known as iconoclasts, or image breakers, opposed icons forcefully. Yet iconophiles supporters of icons, also know as iconodules were a strong presence too, especially in the monasteries and among the masses.

She rejected iconoclasm from her position of authority. No doubt the veneration of icons was itself a survival of sorts from pre-Christian religion, especially in a place like Athens, where people loved to represent gods in human form. Yet theological arguments supporting the use of icons turned on the Christian doctrine of the nature of Christ as equally human and divine. Yet iconography reveals the subtle dialogue of its makers with the spirit of each era.

They embrace Eastern, Byzantine over the once-more-popular Western, Renaissanceinspired prototypes. To achieve their end of transforming matter into a spiritual language, icon painters fast before participating in the sacraments of confession and communion. They also consecrate their brushes, paints, and surfaces. When working in groups, as monks or nuns do in their monastic studies, they each take on a particular task. Other material objects, too, and the senses they appeal to, work to bridge the distance between the material and otherworldly.

They are everywhere in Greece. They are even present in the panigyri. Candles of beeswax add their luscious scent and tiny light as they melt gradually into oblivion. The cake thanks St. Fanourios, about whom nothing is known except the name found on a buried icon discovered by serendipity. Kolyva, boiled wheat mixed with seeds of pomegranate, nuts, raisins, and parsley and decorated on a platter with a sugar covering, candied beads, and Jordan almonds, may be shared after the memorial service to the dead that follows the liturgy, the wheat serving as a symbol of resurrection.

Flowers used to decorate the icon of the patron saint or other items in the church may be collected when they wither and placed inside tiny fylakta protectors , square pouches pinned to underclothing and worn for their miraculous protecting powers. Contemporary Greek burial practices do not hide the fact that the body decays but instead keep within view its material remains.

Three years later they exhume the bones and place them in a tin box in an ossuary. In monasteries and mass graves, such as the one for thirty thousand massacred on the island of Chios by the Ottomans in , human skulls are displayed for people to contemplate not just their history but their ultimate destination.

Every moment spent in the panigyri involves an exchange of glances: unapologetic stares, a reciprocated gaze. The emotional source of the kako mati evil eye is envy, a human response, Greeks believe, to the observation, whether consciously or unconsciously made, that someone or something is richly endowed with a scarce resource. The eye can penetrate any point in social life.

Its symptoms are physical—usually an inexplicable headache, nausea, or dizziness. At the heart of these and other practices lie old habits, some of them reaching back to pre-Christian times. Central to the Greek Orthodoxy is the story of resurrection and victory over death.

Here we see its peculiarly Christian orientation, the aspect of religion that entered Greece from the East, especially with the preaching of St. Paul and others who followed. It puts human beings and the material world that is their playground at the center of the universe and promises nothing less than spiritual perfection and a bodily, material resurrection at the end of time. Religion in Greece does not condemn people for seeking pleasure. Instead it reminds them that as they embrace the material world they should also look for the bridge to spiritual perfection.

At the panigyri they may criticize the church, especially its hierarchy. They do not follow its requirements—even the fast from dairy and meat on the evening before a feast day is more than they sometimes aspire to.

Yet there has been no organized cry for the elimination of the Orthodox element of Greek national identity. There has instead been a revival of interest in the Byzantine component of modern Greek identity, including an increase in the number of young people and professionals entering monasteries. The roots of their deeply held beliefs lie in church history as they understand it. Paul preached in Philippi of Macedonia in a. This fact touches the Greek imagination.

Here as in so many dimensions of Greek life, the antiquity and authority of Greek plays a profound role in Greek self-understanding. Greek Orthodoxy is the religious and cultural inheritance of the Byzantine Empire, the Greek-speaking eastern part of the Roman Empire that continued until The religion evolved from the early Christian churches.

It gradually took its liturgical, cultural, and theological shape after Roman Emperor Constantine the Great legalized Christianity and transferred the imperial residence and administration from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople polis of Constantine. In the eastern provinces surrounding Constantinople, which included all of what is Greece today, Greek was the primary language, a lingua franca, so to speak.

As it was also the language of the New Testament, Greek became the language of the church, the liturgy, theological debate, religious poetry, and eventually, after the fall of Rome in , of the Roman imperial administration in the East, while Latin was the language of the church in the West. Two disruptive events gave ethno-symbolic weight to the Eastern church and later fed Greek nationalist sentiments.

The second event was the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in , leading to four centuries of Ottoman Muslim rule over the Greek Orthodox population. It matters to them that they do not belong to the Protestant West or Muslim East. They embrace the linguistic and geographical markers of their Greek Orthodox distinction. Orthodoxy and Greekness are two sides of a coin, embraced as a sine qua non of identity, whether people attend church or stay up until four in the morning dancing.

Their lives are increasingly removed from the cycles of the seasons, the plantings and harvests, the insecurities of agricultural or sea livelihoods. With contagious and childhood diseases in retreat, Charos—the ancient ferryman of Hades whose name Greeks still use to refer to the angel of death— no longer looms around the corner. They may have enough money to help them pursue new pleasures rather than contemplate the lessons of a monastic ossuary or seek out the countryside shrine, whose small universe of mystery might direct their thoughts to a parallel, more perfect world on another plane.

Matters of faith rarely come up in conversations. Eurostat, the Eurobarometer poll, reported in that 81 percent of Greeks, more than most other Europeans, believe in God. Summer evenings keep calling people back to the church square. The panigyri is now a sweet memory. The tables and chairs are gone. Visitors are traveling to their next destination. Old people sit on benches around the church while the young play their childhood games.

Some are downright hostile to it, while a few seek spiritual alternatives: Buddhism, paganism, Evangelical Christianity. Immigrants from other lands, a growing population, do not share with Greeks their sense of the past or the same history of beliefs and practice.

For now, the church square resonates with familiar sounds and emotions. Carl S. Dimitrios Yatromanolakis and Panagiotis Roilos ; repr. Kyriacos C. Ware, Orthodox Church, Alexander P. See Ware, Orthodox Church, 58—59, on the Trinitarian dispute. The event moves between an apartment building and the laiki on a city street.

It puts on display family dynamics, neighborly interactions, and relations between people on the street. At the laiki, there is a purchase—euros for produce—but also something more: negotiation over the terms of purchase. In this and other daily incidents, forces are at work reinforcing ties while others are cutting them loose. One important reason why people come together is that appearances matter in Greece. People deploy social values to shore up appearances.

Perhaps what is most important to recognize is that people are alert to social fragility, readjusting older tools of association to help them hold things together in the present day. The couple plays along by studying the matter from all sides, knowing well that the decision is already made.

Do the watermelons look good today? Can they carry one up the stairs? Will they be staying for lunch and dinner? How quickly will they eat the watermelon? One even expounds on the dangers of genetically engineered, seedless watermelons. They obediently comply.

She regularly brings their mother cheese from her village. Heading home from the kafeneio, the father catches up with his son and daughter-in-law as they are entering the apartment building. He grabs the watermelon and carries it upstairs.

The incident, the act of buying a watermelon, in no time develops into a complex act with several interrelated scenes. To anyone unaccustomed to the shape of human interactions in Greece, the complexity stands out. Several things are puzzling. First, why does the mother pursue her wishes obliquely? Why does she use her son to circumvent her husband, who in the end has no problem carrying the watermelon upstairs? It could almost be a joke. Third, why is so much discourse indirect?

Fourth, how do people choose their vendors, acquaintances, and friends. Last, what kind of clout does a complete stranger have, and an illegal immigrant no less? Municipal Athens holds about thirty-seven from Monday through Saturday.

And the municipal authorities oblige. For shoppers, the laiki can take up the better part of a morning. No one questions the time commitment. No one argues that it is too much trouble. Piles of herbs and greens send their aroma down the street: dill, parsley, sage, lettuce, Mediterranean arugula, spinach, cabbage, leeks, dandelions, chicory, Swiss chard, amaranth, chickweed, beet greens, radish greens, among others. Fresh or dried legumes, an important element of the diet, occupy another space, as do olives, dried fruit and nuts, and fresh, free-range farm eggs, and cheese.

People saunter purposefully up and down the street with their small, portable shopping carts, or they load themselves with as many bags as they can carry and make several trips back and forth. There are Muslim women wearing head scarves, most of Albanian descent; old people bent with age and the weight of their produce; young Greek or non-Greek women dressed in the latest styles, or in classic designs, or in tight jeans with revealing tops; and men in freshly ironed cotton shirts, which they leave hanging in summer but tuck in and cover with fashionable jackets in winter.

Their darker skin and shiny black hair betray their origins from northern Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Syria, Egypt, or Iraq. They cluster together for security and move as a group, eyes alert for signs of the police, yet ready to work for little if asked. Apart from a few harried customers who are especially pressed for time, people move unhurriedly.

In this way they are maintaining their reputation as good managers of the home. The bond derives from the reciprocation of obligations and sentiment. It translates into loyalty. In rarer instances, it becomes embistosini trust , a hard-won feeling. Greeks see themselves connected to one another through webs of reciprocity. Wherever people gather they are spinning their social web.

At some moment, the feeling of connection may motivate one person to act beyond expectations. When renting a beachside apartment, for example, renters and a landlord may enter a relationship of reciprocity exceeding the economic one. If a landlord treats the renters to a homemade meal or invites them to an onomastiki yiorti name-day celebration on the feast day of a patron saint with the same name as the person , the renters will care for the property as if it were their own and accept an increase in rent.

In the process the bond of dhikos will have formed. The connections grow outwardly from the center, where the closest of friends and family stand. A close constellation of dhikos is a parea group of friends , whose members share good times and bad over the long stretch of life.

An impulse prevails to form and keep such groups wherever Greek communities exist—whether in Greece or abroad. Parees plural of parea may form rather spontaneously when a group of people from a neighborhood, school, university, work, a common cause such as a political party or religious beliefs decide jointly to socialize. The parea with longevity is the one whose relationships have been tested individually and collectively over time.

Savvopoulos idealizes the parea as the quintessential Greek community: a quasi-religious congregation dedicated to song and dance. People tend to create regular occasions for their parea gatherings. They meet often to enjoy food and drink in a favorite setting.

Archived from the original on 25 October Greek Festival. Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 19 January Athens Concert Hall in Greek. Archived from the original on 2 November Greek Festival in Greek. Archived from the original on 6 August Archived from the original on 17 August Archived from the original on 13 July Authority control. ISNI 1. MusicBrainz artist. Namespaces Article Talk.

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