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On the road to Calvary the mob railed on Jesus, "wagging their heads," withondans hauhida seina. This withon, to shake, is for an older hwithon , as seen in Lat. As expressing a rapid movement, whid, whidding, withon has many representatives in Scotch. Among the powers promised by the Master is that of treading on serpents, "trudan ufaro waurme," where the word has its original sense of dragon, "monster of the prime," as in the Welsh cape, christened by the Norsemen Great Orme's Head.
The original is hwaurms , which again is the Sansk. Of more vital interest is the evidence these remains afford of the condition of life among the Goths. In one respect they have the advantage of preserving in transverse section a petrifaction, as it were, of contemporary speech. On the other hand, the limited range of subjects in the Gospels excludes many departments of social and intellectual activity. We miss the language of war and the chase, of the social pleasures, of folk-lore.
But it must be admitted that the Gospel narrative comes very near to our "business and bosoms," so we should expect to find in the language of Wulfila no lack of homely and intelligible terms. A glossary arranged, as it is, alphabetically, conceals the evidence it bears of social and intellectual status. More instructive would it be to have the words classified under subjects. Under these heads a mass of most interesting words are to be found in Gothic, most of which are still in use among us, the rest are quite familiar to a Scotchman, and in a large degree to a German.
All of them have a history in themselves and in the affinities they suggest. Man generally. In this word er represents A. Manna is used, like German man, in an indefinite, pronominal sense. Parts of the Body. Gothic shows that our gallop has also a trace of it in verbs, for it is Go. Literally it is the curved, crooked, as in kink, a twist in a rope, Sc. By Grimm's Law the syll. In haihs and hamfs the syllable ha is prefixed.
It has been dropped in Sc. With few exceptions terms for parts of the body can be recognised with little difficulty. Some interpret themselves at once—brusts breast , hairto heart , hups hip , fotus foot , suljo sole , auso ear , kniu knee, with k sounded as in Scotch. Others are archaic, as fill, skin fell, felt, pelt , amsa, shoulder. If, as Prof. Skeat suggests, this be a mis-reading for ahsa, it is the Sanskrit uhsan, the bearer, the Ger.
Achsel, and Sc. Several are to be referred to A. Wange, the cheek, A. Tooth itself is tunthus, showing the older n as in Lat. The isolated peak, Tinto, in Lanarkshire, was so named by the Norsemen. Wlits and w ludja, the countenance, are A.
Finger and hand are found almost unchanged. The former has its Sc. The Sc. Stamms stammerer , daubs, blinds pron. The Go. Here is the experience of an Orcadian in the Canongate of Edinburgh: "Ae wife luckid oot at a muckle apstair window; the meenit the Laird saw a heed i' a window atween him an' de licht, he stend stock still, an' says he tae me—'Po' me sal, there's a muckle bauckie!
Robbie, gie me me gun, and I'll lay him deed as seur as his heed's on his hass. Gothic fodr is a sheath, i. Mother is nowhere in Gothic. The place of these two terms is taken by the onomatopoetic atta, aithei. Such child words are common, e. The Czar is still to the Slavs the little father.
This is also its force in Go. Such terms as brothar, swistar, dauhtar Sc. Magaths, of which the form magathei is the abstract, is A. The root notion is that of a "growing" lad or lass, cf. It is substantially same as maik, a "fitting" companion, very common in old Scots. Thus Barbour's "Brus" has—. Paida , a coat of skins, to this day the dress of Slavonic shepherds, is said to be in pea -jacket, which has come through Dutch. Another hint of a national peculiarity in dress we get. When Mary wiped Our Lord's tear-moistened feet, Wulfila uses for our phrase, "the hairs of her head," Skufta haubidis seinis.
Skuft is the top-knot, Ger. The pre-historic top-knot is still dear to the feminine world from Lapland to Paris. Natural Phenomena. The sun was known by two names, sunno , fem. The sea was the saiwa , the tossing one, the lake marei , the O. Ahwos , torrents of rain, is aqua, the universal Aryan word for water. Plant Life. The mustard seed is the greatest of all the grasses , cf. The band that came to the garden to seize Christ were armed with trees staves. This explains the expression "nailed upon the tree," spoken of the Crucifixion.
Strange to say. In the A. Ahs , an awn or ear of corn, and ahana , chaff, mean, literally, the little sharp thing, Lat. Waurms, as in O. Great Orme's Head, and "Where the worm dieth not" in the Bible. Bird fugls in general is the Bible word fowl. Sparrow sparwa , dove, and eagle are named, the first two, as in Eng.
This word, now lost, is the O. The O. Arne, the famous musician. Thomas the Rhymer says,—. The golden eagle in Gaelic is the iol-air. The iol here is just our yel-low. For the domestic animals, cattle generally is faihu , a widely diffused word, lit. In Barbour's "Brus" it has its original meaning, —. Our ewe, Lat. Wulfila uses in "Behold, the Lamb of God!
Fula and kalbo, gaits and gait-eins goat-ling , and stiur steer explain themselves. The horse is originally the eager, mettled one. Norse ehwa and in A. In such a compound it should be noted that horse simply means large, cf. Burns's term aiver for horse is derived from O. One other singular animal name is in Wulfila. The Baptist was clad in camel's hair Ga-wasiths taglam ulbandaus.
It has a long and interesting history. The first part of Alphabet leads us to the Semitic form, Heb. For the old alphabets were hieroglyphic or pictorial in origin. The true Teutonic alphabet—the Runes—was of this nature, and the letters had names.
Wulfila based his characters on Runes, as modified by Greek and Latin. The first letter-name in these was, as in the Phoenician alphabet, the ox, the Go. The symbol is just the broad arrow or sapper's mark. What was struck by his bolt must be deo-datum , confiscated, and thus Government serves itself heir to his thunder.
But, to return to Ulbandus , el-eph contains the Arabic article el or al. Ibha , again, is the Gr. The A. The Romance form, olifaunt , survives as a surname. Chaucer, in the tale which he tells in his own character as poet of the Canterbury pilgrimage, sends the Quixotic knight Sir Thopas to do battle with the giant Sir Oliphaunt. One looks with interest on any light the Gothic fragments shed on the life of the people.
Do they show even the rudiments of a social organisation? They called themselves Gut-thiuda , a compound of the national name and a derivative; from an Indo-Europ. The notion is akin to that in Lat. From it is thiudans, the king. Jerusalem is the baurgs of the mikilins thiudanis. On the other hand, Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor, is only the kindins , akin to king , whereas reiks , from which come Lat.
Reich, and -ric in bishopric, is applied to Jairus, ruler of the synagogue. Apart from the idea of rule the most frequent term of respect, and uniformly applied to Our Lord, is frauja, rendering Gr. It is, however, common in the ballads as free ,—. But furth I fundit went with that free. The editor of the ballad remarks:— Free , fey, lord, or fairy, and thus gets over a difficulty with a little courage. It is also in Ger. Frau, and may be the curious Norse surname Fridge, seen on tombstones in the north.
Its Norse equivalent is freyr , probably preserved in the surname Frier. There is evidence of a self-governing community of kindred interest and origin in sibja , long most familiar in Lowland Scots as sib , related, relationship. The village commune is the gauri or country district cf. The essence of free government, the right of popular discussion, is mathl , the market-place, analogous to the agora and the forum, when we remember that faura-mathleis is a chief speaker, and mathljan , to speak, is the Old Eng.
Akin to this is the duty of public giving, implied in mota , toll or custom cf. The same word is in our meed and Ger. Public defence is, of course, but little represented, though we have terms for army harjis , Ger. Heer, Eng. Ga-drauhts , a soldier, is from a verb, dringan , to serve, be pressed into service, still preserved in the old phrase, to dree one's wyrd or fate.
It is possible to construct a Gothic landscape out of the words of that far away time, words perfectly intelligible still. Overhead stretches the heavens himins, Ger. Himmel , above the clear air liftus, Sc. The sun sunna lights the day dags , the moon mena, Sc. In moist hollows one sees the fields hugs, Sc. Here sits sitan the lord faths of the feast, the wairdus Ger. Wirth among his guests, his ga-hlaiba or fellows of the loaf, while the servants thewis, A.
In Early and Middle English it is very common as undern. The occupations of the farm would bulk largely in such a community. In addition to the more easily recognised forms already noticed are a few less obvious but interesting. The barn of the Gospels is bansts , from bindan, to bind as a means of securing.
A Lowland Scot would say of a man under stress of passion, "He could nether hud nor binn. The manger Wulfila calls uz-eto , what is eaten out of, cf. The wattled pens in which the animals were stalled may well be implied in flahta , used in the sense of a plaiting of the hair, and connected with flaihtan , to plait Lat. The movable fence that the Sc. Here would be at times secured the "hairda sweine managaize" herd of many swine that the Gadarene demoniac saw the hairdeis herd haldand keeping, holding, Sc.
Not far off would be the unsavoury dunghill, maihstus , mixen. The strong guttural of maihstus in the Gothic is still heard in the Sc. The term gards has lived long as Gart, Gort, Garth in place-names, and in Norse-Celtic districts signifying a farm-stead Go.
Gud-hus is the only use of our word house, and means God's-house or temple. Its roof is the hrot , uncovered to admit the paralytic into the room where Jesus was. In the Heliand, a Low-German poem of the ninth century upon the Saviour's life, this sufferer is admitted "thurk thes huses hrost," through the house's roof. Hrot , roof, roost, all originally indicated the rafters on which the fowls perched. The paralytic was let down through the tiles— skaljos , Eng.
Of course skaljos would equally apply to thin slabs of stone, still a roofing material in the Border districts, and on old churches. At the end of the house rose the gibla Sc. In front was the porch, after the fashion of a Boer stoep, and known as the ubizwa our eaves. Inside the house, on the middle of the floor, stood the sacred vesta of the Romans, the Go. Stuhl, settle not far off. The larger social centre was the baurgs Eng.
Some kind of enclosure secured the Go. Paul escaped by a basket. The term waddjan here, akin to withe, wattle, widdie, points to a kind of fence still very common in Holland, and formed of plaited willow or hazel twigs. It had its market-place ga-runs , crowded corners weihsta , akin to Lat.
The arts of civil life do not play any great part in the Gospels. Next to the farmer would be the w aurtja , or gardener wort, Ger. Wurzel , whose care would be the aurti-gards with its vineyard. Wine weina , as a name, appears in the word for a drunkard and as a compound with triu tree , basi berry , and tains branch, Sc. Building construction is implied in timrjan timber , to build. Trius , the general term for tree, means also timber, as in triuw-eins, of tree, and in Scots.
The Ger. Baum is Go. The common tool of Central Europe, the axe, is akwizi. The metals are known— eis-arn  iron , gulth gold, figgra-gulth , a finger ring , and silubr silver, meaning also money, as in Scots. Ais , brass, coin, is Lat. The humbler arts of the home are indicated by wulla wool , lein linen , and nethla needle , siujan sew , and bi-waibjan weave. The higher walks of culture could scarcely be looked for among Wulfila's heathen converts.
In church organisation the alien term accompanies the novel and strange idea, but it says much that the subtle language of the Greek is so often accurately rendered by a native word, intelligible to the hearers presumably, otherwise it would have been meaningless. We have spirit ahma , Holy Ghost , soul saiwala , mind muns, munan , to think , understanding hugs. The sense of property is well recognised— Swes, one's own cf.
Erfe , skattja , a money-changer, skatts , money cf. Bota is the familar Scots for boot or money in bargaining. The refined arts of healing and teaching are illustrated by lekeis , a physician, the O. Lehrer , Wulfila's rendering of Rabbi. The root of the latter is in a Gothic preterite verb, lais , I know, and its derivative, laisjan , therefore means to make to know, that is, teach.
Gothic thus distinguished between the two processes, long expressed in English, as it is still in Scots, by the one term, learn. The only reference to anything like education is stabs , a letter, element, still a compositor's term cf. Our spell has its older meaning, spillon , to narrate cf. The art of the healer had to deal with two serious forms of disease—palsy and leprosy.
The paralytic, us-litha , is named from lithus, a joint or limb Ger. G-lied from leithan , to go our lead. Scott tells the story of Samuel Johnson's discussion with the elder Boswell at Auchinleck. The doctor's depreciation of Cromwell the laird clinched with, "He gar'd kings ken they had a lith in their neck.
The Goth could not have been without his pleasures—witness his siggwan , to sing, also to read, doubtless a recitative in church. In this connection may be noted an odd expression that throws light on the ceremonial of Wulfila's converts. Again, a certain lawyer asked, "Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life? How readest thou? Wherever Scripture reading occurs this verb is met with. Our word read is also in Gothic rodjan , but in the sense of speaking.
For singing in the secular sense we have liuthon Ger. Lied , and liuthareis , a singer. Wulfila refrains from using the Runic Tius. A demon is skohsl , Ger. Scheu-sal, Scheuche, a scarecrow, Sc. But a commoner term is un-hultha , Devil, Satan, still in Ger. Hell is halja , the covered or hidden, cf. Hades, the unseen. The root is in hul -jan, to cover, Sc. The affix ja is very common as a diminutive in Sc, and specially Aberdeenshire, e.
The foregoing terms give, in considerable variety, evidence of the social and intellectual condition of the Goths. They also bear out the fact that these people were, in a veritable sense, our forefathers. A further inquiry will prove that these remains throw a very instructive light, not only backward upon the primitive condition of Teutonic Europe, but forward on many words and expressions still in common use.
As we have a fuller and richer history, an older and more varied literature than any other European country, it cannot but happen with our words as with our institutions, that old friends assume new faces. Gothic, therefore, serves to show how great has been this change in meaning as well as form. The long forgotten sense in which they occur gives us a strange surprise. Sutizo comp. Sels , our silly, always retains its good sense, as in Ger.
In the parable of the talents, Lc. Its opposite, early, is air , ere, while both are in Scots as "late an' air. In the Gospels the centurion's servant was swers or dear to him. Fagrs , again, our fair, has only the sense of suitable or fit. In German and Dutch the root is very common. On the other hand, many adjectives differ little from modern forms, thus, gods good , ubils evil , faus few , manags many , reiks rich , arms poor, Ger.
Such adjectives were compared much as now; for example, for good, better, best, we have gods , batiza , batists. A quite obsolete adjective, mins , is treated similarly, minniza , minists. It still appears as a verb, to mince, make small, common in early English. In the list of nouns there are interesting Gothic words still common in Scots though long lost to English. In the miraculous feeding the disciples took up of the remains of the feast, laibos gabruko , literally the lave of the brock or broken bits.
In Ephesians the phrase, without spot or blemish, has wamme and maile , the former O. The Apostles are to shake the dust off their feet, if not favourably received, where we have in Go. The sponge that the soldier handed to the Christ on the Cross is a swam Ger. Swumfsl is the pool of Siloam.
The word is in Eng. When Judas led Pilate's men to Gethsemane they carried lanterns, for which Wulfila uses skeima. It is in our shimmer, but in Scots in the older form,—. In the cricket-field a hard hitter is a slogger, retaining the old guttural. To whet is now obsolete almost, but Wulfila regularly uses it in the sense of threaten, rebuke.
Thus Our Lord whets hwotjan the evil spirits. Shakspere makes Brutus say,—. Thus Peter went out and grat bitterly gaigrot baitraba. To whine, again, is hwainon, in the sense of mourning. Again, in Wulfila the thieves twitted id-weit-jan , i. Ween , now only in over-weening, is quite common in its old sense of expect, fancy. Be-wray , now obsolete, is wroh-jan , to accuse, e. This process of change goes a step farther, and introduces us to common Go. Its derivatives are ogre, eager, ugly, awe.
On the Borders ug-sam is still an expressive epithet. Theihan , to thrive, prosper, gives the commonest asseveration in O. The thigh, Sc. Laikan , to leap for joy, laiks , sport, is the vulgar larks, larking. Dugan , to avail, is Ger. Bums has, "Some swagger hame as best they dow" are able , and, again, as a negative, downa. The derivative doughty, Ger. The root lives in a mutilated form in, How d' you do? Anan , to breathe, a very old verb, is lost in Eng. Uz-anan is said of Our Lord giving up the ghost on the Cross.
Scotch long preserved the word,—. Eend, breath, now obsolete, was common in Scotch of the seventeenth century. The derivative, ansts , grace, favour, Ger. Gunst for ge-unst, is a pretty metaphor in Gothic. Some of these Gothic verbs are more obscure than others, but the difficulty vanishes on closer acquaintance.
German easily accounts for such as fraihnan , to question fragen , mitan, to cut Messer, a knife , niman, to take Ger. Of the first there is an odd example in the ballad, "As I went on ae Monday,"—. It is Go. Its usual sense of hiding, listening, varies somewhat in the Fifeshire, "he dernd a wee," that is, paused to think. When, in the synagogue at Nazareth, the unclean spirit in the poor man called out, the Master said, "Silence!
German is in a much more archaic and homogeneous condition than modern English, and, therefore, one is quite prepared for many points of connection between it and Gothic. But they belong to different branches of the Teutonic family. Here one finds the most astonishing identities, not alone in form and sense, but in pronunciation and minute turns of expression.
The Goth said hwan, than, nu, ut, na, ain, haim, braid, gagg gang , for when, then, now, out, no, one, home, broad, go. For "Suffer little children to come to me," Wulfila says, but slightly changed, "Let thay  bairns gang to me. The apostles, sent out to preach, are to take ane rung one staff, aina hrugga.
One is to lay upon the altar a hunsl as a gift, which is just hansel in Handsel-Monday, and Shakspere's "unhouseled" in "Hamlet. Milk itself is a dissyllable miluks , just as one hears it now in Dutch. The gospel mystery, again, was concealed from the wise and prudent and revealed to babes.
Can this be the klekkin and klekkit, familiar to every Scottish laddie that has kept rabbits? The homeliness of the expression is almost shocking, but in language, as in life, there are plenty of poor relations. The hireling shepherd in the parable is betrayed by his "stibna framaths ," his fremmit or strange voice. Another Shaksperian phrase "The wild waves whisht," in the "Tempest," is paralleled in Go.
Other peculiar terms oddly survive in Scots. A common asseveration is "bi sunjai," the "verily" of the Authorised Version. Quite a long story might be told of this word and its cognates ; enough to say it lives in Sc. Turning now to verbs we find similar evidence of identity.
The Goth said bide beidan for staying in a place. Jesus asks of the unbelieving generation, How long must I thole thulan you? The elect are the waled waljan or chosen. The crown of thorns—wipja us thaurnum—is a wuppin o' thorns, from wipjan , to twist or plait, the Sc. The regular verb in Go. For a strictly mental act Wulfila uses hugjan , to think, which, with the particle of reversal, for , Ger. Finally giutan , to pour out water, is quite a Sc. In "Johnny Gibb" is "Loshtie, man, ye're seerly gyaun gyte," and again from an old poem,—.
Lowland Scots preserves many such verbs in their Gothic senses and sometimes even in sound. Thus gairnjan , to yearn for, is heard better in Sc. We use went as the past of go from Go. When we turn from the vocables of a language, as evidence of its character and pedigree, to its grammar we are on firmer ground. For in the one case the materials are in a perpetual flux, each district, generation, social set, individual even, giving a new meaning to the old stock or borrowing from without, whereas in the other we have the permanent bed of the stream, deeply grooved with the flow of ages.
In language, as in the features of Nature, age conceals itself under the guise of familiarity. Who thinks, as he follows the course of some wimpling burn, that he is gazing on what is older than the oldest historical monument in existence, or dreams that the variations of case and number in his own speech were evolved in an age long anterior to the Vaidic hymns. Historical grammar is in the study of language what morphology is in the natural sciences treated biologically.
In both directions we see persistency of type, co-existent with endless modifications in obedience to the demands of functional growth and decay. Many of the so-called anomalies of English grammar can thus be invested with meaning and interest. The answer to these and many more such questions is found better in Gothic than anywhere else, for this reason, that it places us so near to the primitive type of Teutonic speech, undisturbed by subsequent functional derangement.
Hence it is indispensable to the scientific study of English grammar, just as it in turn is illuminated by the living vernacular of Scotland. It would be impossible, within reasonable limits, to give anything like a full account of Gothic grammar.
Merely a few points can be selected, and these such as prove the essential identity of the language with our own, and at the same time elucidate modern idiom and expression. Gothic is, like German, highly inflected. Wulfila cannot equal the richness of the Greek verb, but is able to convey to his countrymen with sufficient accuracy the spirit of so subtle and flexible a language.
The basis of conjugation is the familiar distinction between strong and weak verbs, or what might rather be called primary and derivative. Gothic properly makes this turn on what is the cardinal function of the verb, the expression of preterite or past time. The primitive and very natural mode of doing so is by reduplication of the root, and this is well preserved here as in Greek. The idea of past time might very well be expressed by stress on present. Tee-total is said to be the result of a stuttering orator's endeavour to emphasise total abstinence.
Traces of the process exist in Latin, either obvious, as cado, cecidi, or disguised, as fac-io, fec-i for fe-fac-i. Our did, Go. Hence have arisen the monosyllabic preterites that we find in Go. These processes exhausted themselves ages ago. Not a single strong verb has been developed within the historical period. The younger weak and derivative inflection supplies our increasing wants, and, like Jacob, appropriates the heritage of its elder brother.
A Scotsman even says begoud for began, and, still worse, seen for saw, hoten for hit, and putten for put. It was a Glasgow merchant, they say, who, visiting the Louvre, remarked in answer to his French conductor's "This is a portrait of Burke, your great countryman," "Dod, maan, I seen him hanged. But the best proof of the value of Gothic as an aid to historical grammar is to be found in the analysis it renders possible of our weak preterites in -d and -ed.
The auxiliary do has coalesced with the stem, so that I love is just I love-did. Strange to say, the very common Teut. It must have reduplicated and formed its pret. The first syllable disappears when used as a compound tense. It thus appears that, even where apparently we see tense indicated in Eng. Gothic uses this composite tense as freely as we do now. In Matt, xxvii. This preterite tense is the only time inflection in Gothic. In common with all the Teut.
Wulfila renders the Greek future variously, most frequently by using the subjunctive. In Latin, as every boy knows, the Fut. He also uses the Indic. Circumlocutions he employs, just as we may now say, I am going to, about to, intend to, have to. Our auxiliaries shall and will are always independent verbs in Gothic, with the decided meaning of duty and wish. Such is the tense condition of the Teutonic verb; the other forms which grammarians parade in English are simply imitations of Latin.
All this goes to show that in primitive times little advance had been made in developing this, one of the subtlest and most abstract of conceptions. Even yet the commonest errors in translation, as every teacher knows, are due to confusion of tenses. Many more striking illustrations of the value of Gothic to the student of grammar might be adduced. Suffice it to refer to one more verbal form, the passive.
Here Gothic throws a unique light on the primitive condition of the Teutonic tongues. These all, like English, never had a conjugational or simple passive. We are so familiar with it in Greek and Latin that we can scarcely realise our poverty here. In point of fact, young learners have the greatest difficulty in grasping the conception of a passive. They fail to see the difference between I am struck and I am sick.
For, in a compound tense such as am struck , the participle, which we call the main verb, is nothing more than an adjective in predicative relation to the subject. English, and still more French and German, avoid the passive by the use of indefinite and reflexive pronouns. Thus the book has been found is in German the book has found itself.
Colloquially we regularly avoid the passive by using the indefinite they as a subject. Other modern languages adopt to an excessive extent reflexive forms. But the favourite mode is our modern one of circumlocution, with participles and auxiliaries, or by a peculiar formation from a passive participle in— na , our— en in brok-en. Thus, from mikils , Sc. Slight traces of this still survive in learn and own.
The former is from an original lais-nan , to be lered or taught. German shows this distinction of act. Own , again, is an original agnan A. These forms are, however, not true passives, being simply the participle with the adjectival ending—na or en, treated as a verb, very much as we still do, e. In all these cases the participle is merely an adjective used predicatively. I am loved is not a form like amor , but really I am one loved.
The ultimate elements in grammar are two-fold, verbal and pronominal. In a now-forgotten book, the "Diversions of Purley," Horne Tooke showed a century ago that nouns, which bulk so largely in grammar, are merely epithets formed from verbal roots. It is said that our man , the thinker, is the only case of a Teut.
The pronominal elements are the abbreviations of speech, in themselves non-significant marks of identity. Their inflexion, as pronouns, is peculiar. We have lost many of the Gothic forms, but preserve a few, e. The masc. The full form of I, Go. When the two disciples are told to find the colt in the village over against, Wulfila uses the dual of the pronoun, for Go. A more serious loss is that of the reflexive, which German preserves of. Turning lastly to demonstratives and relatives, we find still further interest in Gothic grammar.
The article is exactly what we see in Sanskrit and Greek. Its feminine survives in she , its neuter as that , which Sc. The proper plural of he Chaucer uses regularly. In Shakspere its dative is frequent, though his editors substitute for it them. It is not in Gothic, except in a few adverbial phrases, such as to-day himma daga, ef. The relative is very imperfectly developed.
This is just what might be expected, for the use of the relative implies a distinct advance in composition and the inter-dependence of clauses. Its growth is always slow, and the usage of cognate tongues far from uniform. The reader of Dickens knows that when the uneducated attempt to go beyond the rudimentary stage in composition of ands and buts and wells, and aspire to relatives, they throw about their which's very freely. The primitive relative is usually a pronominal particle Go.
A Gaelic speaker will say he for the throughout. The Irish peasant makes it dee. On the other hand the pure Lowland Scot says Foorsday Thursday , and squeezes out the dental between vowels as persistently as the Cumberland man has laal and oude for little and old. This relative one constantly hears in Scots. It can be traced from the oldest vernacular, the twelfth century "Laws of the Four Burghs," down to the speech of to-day. In such imitation Scots as Burns often wrote we have wha instead.
Thus, "Scots wha hae" would be in Barbour "Scottis at hes," as Dr. Murray well shows. That is simply the demonstrative, and has its own appropriate use; but who, whose, whom, what, which, are really interrogatives. They are so in Sanskrit, where who is ka as in Gaelic co still. Who as a relative in Eng. Furnivall says it was first used once in Wyclif's Bible, and very sparingly till Shakspere. In Gothic the interrogative is hwa -s, Sc. A peculiar idiom is the Scots at hoo for how that.
Which is a descriptive form of adjectival relationship quite distinct from who. Latin qualis, Fr. Gothic proves it to be a compound, where it is hwi-leiks. For it has become our general adverbial suffix, -ly, e. Sanskrit affords a curious parallel; Lat. Arma, earpashonld be stored at the hsadqnerters of cac Uattalicn ander one reaponsible earctak: r. The pelneion of seven Giarrison Batteries i Ontano, there being na guns for them to man A, An increase 10 the artillery In Qn bee an Kingston, where there are imporian!
A apeclal lay to prostle funds for miller, estabitishmenta,. Conversion 0. Minch of the crear 1ton has been perforacd. II they were of the r-luisime who wan educated saclusively in the address of y. The Hon. UBSC wp , tuis syvtem also has been considesably modified.
The sti Calaese bil atrraecine war which was sometiases carried ou re. Turkistan that this war should ba stoped, nd paused by the Senate by a vote of thirty-nine to [90 iv after a short struggle she anuered it; Rusia appears determined uot to rellaquieh her hold upos the province, sud Chica is just as determined upon recovering possessivn of it.
Kuldja i» » wedge, ahaped provinee, which is sald to form the key of Western Chios from Turkistan, lt lice immediately mort of Mivduatan. Formerly a province of Chine, it and many other provinces vaniiy ou suered. We must not forget the leon tenght us ly the Hoythisns and thaie rebellions slaves, The latter, though willing enough tu face uwont and spear, ted cowering at the crack of the borsewhip, Thungh stronger tu day than evez before, aud probably than he over will be again, he may, nevertbeless, by mere foroguf habit, how to the old dictation, no matter how uswisely it may command.
As we have Before anid, the clisenissal of Me. Lotellier would that pee, Dub quarrela aruse awupy themselvee, ' tWoval vf the Quebec Government would pruve favorable to them in the general Dominfon elec: tion have been singularly upset. Un the con. States, is being dandied iu Canada. One wenld think Se. Tt efforts of the late Government, not anything thers was iu the treaty, but in spite of it.
Litalir alowed Binks 1 SAC per fonertion. Stemi n re hes - a ts a latter enjoy the same privileges ln ihe Pa rene es tre power, Sir Jubn would mever bave achieved nach. Wehave never heard of more than two parties with whom this oom- minion arrangement was made, namely, Messrs. Ritchie, Becratary ofthe Manitoba Colonization Bociety of Montreal, and neither of these parties has, we thivk, found It towork, Mr, Ritchie, indeed never accepted the privilexe with a view ta personal benefit, distinotly announcing hin intention to make agreements with his exigrants by which the whole of the land should in time fall to them without thelr baving to pay for more thas hall otit The Manitoba crown land agent, however, repudiated the agreement when he saw the form it took, and this led Lo its discontinnance at Ottawa.
The answer in easy. Blaine the posplein its favor. The English Quebec [and Thurman, both men of great eloquence and Liberals in oppositivm, or even when victorious ability, buth champions of civil rights and the at the polls, are more likely to be found in lavor of legialutice union than the Untari.
It je ou; clergy. This ting in Quebec. The Liberal party fa Ontario faction of tbe United States Conyress is of ln- are united in favor of the present system. And it would seem ns if their opponents would assume ruestion to deal with, British Colum: little think of -leg! Relieved by thin from Mr.
De Con:,ve save the mark to have the mat. All this beaped upon him when he makes his motion. A has not only been without incarring debt, Lut [good deal of very grave nonsense may be talked with actualiy a large surplus. This could not upon the subject, and among other things that will bave been expected with legislative union, Poaor- be appealed to will be the action of the United or provinces, which did not tax themselves so States Congress.
There are things not believe be is, and so i is not unlikely that which are much dearer to this majority than the country may be saved from the dishonorable money. When they fouad thet the demande action which ber representatives fa the interest from Ontario for representation by population of party have committed her to, avd the three onuld no longer be suocemsfully resisted, they [candidates will have secured the very doubtful yielded to them in consideration of the Federal advantage accruing to them from the action is system, which gave them one happy spot where pandering to the lowest clement of fae popule- they could carry out their principles as they tion of California, which wae fitly represented wished, Some of the pecallar legislation which i is recorded ln the annals of this Province is sul.
The dislieuitien of doive all jcity, 0 protest ia the interests of commerce the legislation for distant Manitoha and againet the bill, and to petition the President to remote British Columbia at OWaws are too! Grantiny that the ney argues that it is, the Celestial population ia not »o great as to cause immediate danger.
The question will then Le asked, if this be the case, why whom have no person: al prejadice to the race, have vatid for the California will per- parties, Republicans and Democrats, are vying full freedom of the negro, were at one with Mr. British ili. Supposing the facts Li be aa atated, they have good cause for apprehension, but it is more than probable that the King of Burmuah had good grounds fur suspicion.
Lefore the British Government would be jueditied in interfering with the, internal government of an independent mation, it should Le well assured of the grounds upon which it proceeds, Though ex. The former has prospered yreatly, and the population has more than doubled owing to the increased immigration from Burmah proper, which bas resulted from the es tahlishment of » fem and just government, The otridet made la efication are wonderful ; of pearly three hundred mission schools established only about one hundred receive any aid, being mostly sell-supporting.
The commerce of the vountry has more thas doubled. Independent Barmah, though very rich in minerals, and tolerably fertile, has made no progress what. Her cotton, iron and silk mannisc- tures, which were at one time large, are now sruall as ber meighbors undersell her in ber own markets, owing to the burdensome taxes which the people suffer. Although British rule would, therefore, to all socounts, be a great boon to the country, it is hard to see under what pretext it conld be established, as there is exactly the same need of British rule in Russie as in Hurmah, and the Bea's goverament, although somewhat crasller, perbape fs we strong in his conntry as that of the User.
Rumor says thet Mr, Angers, with a following of thirty sight French Conservatives, has informed Sis Jobn Macdonald that their support depends on the dismissal of the Hon. This would certainly be like Mr. Angers, who has doubtless learned well the tactics taught Lim by the railway rieg In the Quasbec Legislature, which exercised » similar pressure on bis own Cabinet. The rallway ring bad sometl. Angers and his followers wonld, it seems, turn traitors and vote with Mr.
Maokenxie out of pare spite. Thirty-eight is a large namber, but Bir Joba would if be were wise let them do tative from that Provioce be would be able Li the depressivn which is weighing su heavily upon us at present. These financiers have thought that it would be well if they could get an expression of opinion favorisg the project from the farmers, so the Warden of the County of Lincoln called a meeting of the rate-payers, snd one hundred gathered to discuse the various uestions of finance, cue- rency, tariff changes, etc, which were on the programme.
Todd, be dismissed, the tables will be turned. It will thea be Sir John's turs to be accused of a high handed sasault on the sacred ark of cuvetitutional liberty, and Sie John's party which willeuffer. Lotellier had the imminent kruptcy of a plundered province to plead as enforcing his eterciss of bis nodoubted preru- gative, while Sir Jobo would have nothing to plead but the clamor of the brute furce brigade, who are utterly unabls to sppreciste the value of constitutional government.
The task, commenced last year by Mr. The Khe: dive consented to yiell back to the Goverument the immense territories which he had bought with the public money, and which were the prinicipal source of hin large private levenues, and also to cut down the State expenses, which were swollen im- wensely by charges for maintenance of favor: ites jn bis household.
The Egyptian army, which bad fgrown considerably in strength in conse. Rivers-Wilson has apparently ia- sisted on the disbanding of a portion of it. Tu answer to the offer to subaidixe any enterprise that would supply this most unfortunate lack, many schemes are discuseed. The most natural is, of course, a cable from Aden by Mau.
Although least ume upon the immediate author of their troubles. The Khedive appears to bave at tirst stood by bis minister, however, and to have soffered for it, an action that could bardly have been expected from him, as be bas been the greatest and most unwilling sufferer through the r.
It is only two thousand miles from Gondokoro tn Pretoria ia the Transvaal, and it is stated by the projectors that it would not be difficult to carry a line through by way of the Albert a 1 Victoria Nyan- za,aud the Teoganyika and N yames regions, so well known through the labore of Livingstone and Stanley. He was sure, however, that, considering the hon. He alluded to the negotiations with france and Spain, snd afterwards passed on to say thau he was going to try aod meet the reasonable demands of the people of British Columbia, and they had expressed their confidence in his administration Ly electing him for Victoria.
He defended his statement regarding bank stocks by stating that stocks had sen from two to four per cent. The Addreve was then allowed to pass. The debate throughont was conducted with good feeling, and there pears to be po reason to fear a revival of the db graceful scenes occurring at times during the end of previous sessions of liament.
The House will scarcely dv any business of cunse- quence this week, and the national palicy will bave to Le brought dowu before the pra! The debate un the Address in the S-nate did not pare off en pleasantly aa the corr discussion in the House of Commons. Cornwall moved, and the Hon Mr. De Bancherville seconded the Address, followed by the Hon. W, Scott.
The tirst was fired by the Hon. Mr, Carroll, who is a of disent British Canadian. He found fault with tbe Pa. The Hon, Mr. Annand followed, aud express. Campbell replied that the Gor. It appears that a quarrel arose between the Faloupes, a tribe of dative inhabiting the coast of Senegambia, and the tribe lobabiting the conntry near the Portuguese settlements of the Rio Grande and Cacheo rivers, Last Septetober the Feloupes attacked the latter tribe, who were partially christianized, and killed about half of the number, and the remainder sought refure at the Portuguese fort.
England and France guaranteed the loan, truating that the new Fiaaace Minister would recsive the support of the Khedive in executing the reforms necessary in it. Rivers-Wilson following his action. By Telegraph from our Correaponde nt. Ortawa, Feb. The question Le what to du with the men who are In it now and cannot get » living.
There are many ns var mA vor pre vs ns ee ma a they pan middle age become tiresome to thelr be. It will be remembered thas Sie Jokn Mac. Aa is veual on auch occasions divine of large experience. Tear the march of thought. Ontario, ou the other baud, has no less than two re body, while under the late Government there was only one, other parts of your empire. Mokeseis n bis reply.
As thas amendel, the then passed, aad both sides The Hon. Bellorose trok the same ground as the Hon, Mr. Aunsnd, and the debats waa further adjourned until to-day. Considerable [surprise was ex dat the time of the formation of the Uabinet that Que- without the it Lange was a representative ir. Campbell in the Senate bas given notice that he will move a humble addres. We shen fall, may It please Your Majesty, properly to convey 0 yon tho common seniimont of your Canadian aob- ects, did we not the expression of ovr carnest y many Aud consolation in Divine tion shat your illastriona daugk- beqienthed to her.
Veb, Rose's motion, sskiog for a return of the teaders for reporting and pristing the debates of Par. C, Cameron then moved for a teturn cf all removals from office and soper. He hae consider: aive i appointments to and diemiesals whieh in separation them in thought from the s Jou!
The motion of the Hon. Cockburn and Maslougall, who aro maid by the Reformers to feel wanewhat dis puioted uver the election of De Blan- A te the Speakersbip, Mr Anglia re counted in a detailed aiuer the correspoae which bad passed between himself soil the Clerk vf the House regatiliog thr vacancies eristiug fa srlacipally caused Ta ud David in order to run fut the Mouse of Couitzne.
Thaddeus Patrick. Hartuey, who for the last Lwo or Mr. Patrick's posftion ; und some other minor changes were made, the result of which, Mr, Az. The Livuteusat. Tiomville and Roberts bad similar not still v1 proses himself ns satisfied that he point of parllamentary law. Bell wished to! The Ti. Holders aro wilting pale ats othe the questions likely soos to come before Parlia: tigation made general, but their order was at be brought to bear to secure that cad.
F'he quotatiens which remain oe! Ur, 3 reased , Col. The tar debate tard] likely ci there woui literie bed dificuley ba fiadiog Flo accuunta ave bees troubling the minds! Shortly after the Hovse met the tenders for printing or reporting the debates wen brought dawn, but as the members had no but annonnce their intentions of closely criticla ; time to examine the papers the debate was ad- [ri Madrid the lait, pnd boing the j-urued, The Speaker praseatiog the tender, sald that the Clerk laid before the House the tenure, remark which was at once caught up by Mr.
Anglin, who stated that this was an- wther jostauce of interference with the preroga- tivea of the Speaker, Mr. There was auvtuer wbort sittiog of the House yoaterday, lasting rom three untl five v'clook. He vary mildly, Eat urged strongly tbat the House should mot tolerate any interference with ita riglits snd privileges, Sir John Macionald, who lowed, mitted that the Commision un Tutornal Foonomy had no right to make appolutments.
He also that except for the jrurpose of the Internal Economy Act, which allowed the Speaker to appoint an accountant, Mr. Anglin had no rover to act, sud the apimintments should have n left unmade until the new Speaker was elected, the late er having ceased to ber: sponaible. He agreed with the interpretation of the Act wade hy Sir John Macdonald, acd ule expremed the belief that these appoiniments shauld he non-partisan, After some remarks from the Hog, Messrs, Mac- kensie aud Anglin, the former demanding ex- nations made particularly in regard to th ismissal of Mr.
Anglin's defence was a very good ome, but whatever his rights may bave been there 1s very grave reason to doubt the advisability and desirability of a tleman oocupying the poi: tion be did at tiuse making appointments. That the appointments required to be filled at once is not a valid coe, aa the Clerk had puwer to make such temporary srrangements aa were necessary until the House met.
In one case at least, namely, in the bringiog to Ottaws vf Mr. Brossoit,be overinoked the claime of viticera in the service, though bis proposed appointments to the committee erkehiye appear to he unex: ceptionable, The Lresent Guveroment ales cuni- mitted a grave injustice in this matter by the a intment of Mr. Moffatt to the position over the ends of toen who have been in the servicafor years. Sie Jobn's admission too that the Commission on Internal Economy bad no right tomake appoint: ments also places bim in a somewhat contradictory position, in view of the fact thst Speaker Blanchet bad stated only the day before that he had oot received Mr.
One desirable result, however, is likely to be achieved by the bringing np of this question, namely, that any futurs Speaker placed in the same position sa Mr. Anglin will know what course to pursue, and will not be placed in the rather uncomfortable predicament of having his appointments Ignoreda There ie not likely to be anything of interest up fur «Hi -nasion this after noon, and, in view of the stat. The sitting of the Houma for this afternonn was an exceedingly brief ons, only lasting for about an bour.
Tupper senigned as reason for abandoning the operatious that in the financial position v the country the Government felt it necrasary not Lo pi with any large public works which would atmit of postponement, bnt that ne zoon as jroasible tha work would be cumpleted. To-day Thursday Me. Mason's removal Mr. Mackenzie un provivus ece- KuowE. In fact, the Speakers gallery has not by soy nieans been well pater.
Hoursua has fntroduced a bill «n the same subject. Mr, Mousseau's motion for papers in convection with the Letellier matter passed without belog discussed. He also argued a new province should be erected. M: Macdougall and Mills asde acte observations ca the question, but its merits were not Lheronghly gone into, bath gentlemen Orrawa, Feb.
It is precisely the saine as the one introduced by him last seasiom, but which uwing to the pressure of business towards the close bad to be witbdrawn. It isa rule of Eoglish law that when a territory belonging to the Crown of England is given an organiced government that so much of the Common Statute Law of Englund as is applicable to the clrcumatances of the new country is adopted, and thet any legislation bad subsequent to the period of the orcanization of government in the territory, unless extended in the exyrem words of sistnte to the country, isnot considered s port of the law.
The statement made ty Mr. Charl: to's motion praying for the enforcement of elected, sud thus placing Mr. Anglin in n poeition to be nominated for the Speaker. The return is a very interesting one The first dommoent presented fs a letter fro the Speaker, dated Beptember 24th, , nd addre-ed to the Clerk, in which Mr. Anglio states that an it sppesred that be was still in «an way rrapossible for the duties of the uftice be wold he glad to be informed ss to how wat.
Oa 27th September Afr, Anglin again writes Mr. Patrick, appatently in rely to n letter received from the latter recom- mendiog «ertain changes vecessitate! Then follows correspondence ts show that these ice came on to Ottawa, but Bir Jobn M: nald, throagh Mr. Hartney, ordered Mr. Patrick not to recognize them, and they were sent hore, On secember 9th Mr.
Anglin writes to Mr. Bowell's motion fer the apy cut of a select committee to districts was postponed uo. Un the 10th of December the Clerk writes to Mr. Anglia regretting to see the attacks made on bits and of which to some extent he had been the innocent cause, Ua the 15th he writes again expressing a feat lest his dismissal should result from his baving obeyed the 5 er's orders, also stating that be could not think that he Anglin wished to see him sacrificed, Un December 15th Mr.
Anglin writes to Mr, Patrick stating that he does nat attach the slightest blame to him for the noise made by the ntmenta, as he had expected something of the kind. He also ex- remtes the opinion that the Clerk had heen shabbily treated by Bir John Macdonald in bar- jog been given verbal instructions, and in the communication of the first minister having been made to him through a sabordinate officer.
On the 24th January the Clerk writesto Mr. Anglin, givioy the reasons why the firet letter bad written, atl stating that he had carried eut the instructions of 8ir John Macdonald with [less ure, having arrived at the conclusion that the Speaker could only act at that time for the purposes of the Internal Economy Act, in which mention waa only made of the appointment of an accountant. Is further correspondence the changes sre made bo Bil the vas: created hy the death of Mr, Thaddeus.
Barden, Mr. Fiset sud Mr, Casey were appointed whips. Mackenzie sill acts in that position, Tt ie stated that wo formal selection will be made, while some of the tuembera advicate the appointment of » nom: mittee to manaye matters, TIE BALL. At tbe ball lass evening Hin Fxcellenay danced cdonald the first quadrille, and nes with Sir John Maodonali.
Tilley, Madame Laurier, Mrs. Masaou, Chief- Justice Ritchie, Col. MtLeod and others. It is stated that at the conclusion of the ball one of the curtains in the Vall-roum caught fire, bat the flames were extinguished before serious damage resulted.
The instructions provide that His Excellency shall canre the Commission to be read ani published in the presence of the Chief. Justice or other judge of the Supreme Court and of the members of the Privy Council ; that he should take the oath of allegiance and of office to be administered liy the Chief-Jnatice or soy judge of the Supreme Court ; that he should communicate hi« instrusti na to the Privy Council ; that the lawa assented to hy him and sent howe should Le abstracted in the margin, and that four copies of the proceedings and minutes of the proceedings of the Yominiou Parliament shall also he furnished, The usual prwer to grant par: dons is given to His Excellency and required that be shall not except where the nifender has been of a political character make it n condition nf any pardon that the offender skal be banished from the Daminion.
Mackenzie wig stated it, fact that another daughter vi er Majest: over the Government House of tbe Dominior. At the conclusion of Mr. Mackenzie's remarke an incident of a rather startling character occur. The Hun. Sir Johb Macdonald at ance called for a waiter, and Dire.
Th, , Fortin and Fiset were scun on the spot and doing what they could under the clrcnmatacces. Mackenzie, who called ont a number of times to allow plenty of air, Braudy vas called for by the doctors and speedily Es ou attacking Mr.
Mackenzie for the statement made io the debate on the address that the banking capital of the country had fallen off sume ten or twelve millions. There are some twenty tenders for the three different branches of the service, but only three or fous for the whole work. Kirkpatrick, M. A better selection could not have been made. Holtos, an appointment that might create » little rrprise r. Mousseau wes appointed chairman the cotmtmittes on privit aad elections, The Hou, Me.
Lavgevio wan elected chairman of the com- mitbes on reflways, caoale and tel ines. Dewdny of Siplring laws the PB. Robinson nf standion re, Mr. Hector Cameron of private bills, and Mr. MoDoosld of lm- migration and colonisation. The French CUonwevative caucus appears likely to bear fruit.
The foitiative has been offi takea by Mr, Mousses, who bas bees gard Lo duty dering the amd , Mr, ovo for coples of petition addrvesed 3 Cert couplained thet thia oftilel bai Govemor onal by the Hon, Mors. Fortin and Tupper. The fit ars to have been merely an emotional one, and recovery followed soon after.
Uwiox aa to the full ex- boyd of the mishap copaiderable consternation te an nge were suspended for seve: ral mioutes, Order was restored immediately , and burluess was roceedod with aa usual. The only motion or papers that provoked any disonssion of 1n- terest was that made by Mr. It was Mer, Bethune who tuck this point, and arguing from conatitativoel Hardy was the minister who spoke principally, ; bat it Te is roan w the extreme undeelrabil unfairness o practios and not its violation of pariisnientary law, The Opposition leaders con- aud.
The financial year of the Proviace, ualike that «f the Dusinius, erde with the sod of Decetuber, An alatract of the receipts and expenditure for ISTE hw been furnished, but that is nut satisfactory to many, who think that they should have he cumplete acwounty of the previous year duting the session. Ih their best tu furnish what was desired. The Valunce of wascts against Mr. Clendioseng hes, of Wiest Marl which chews] woulor. Euglih wlio ang cargoes, wheat firm, corn, spt.
OL For shrpprg thr story itt dewand for sn grade of Luter ons fr asnall viders bave been reoned. The ol. Meredith ap. Voit i bed pow been falrly begua, but it is not pre ceeding very fast, Mout of the criticism wo far bas been exceedingly petty.
This, howe perhapa in accordance with the practice p vious sessions, when willione fog ;aiiway and other purposes were voted. The trouble about the latter was that io accounts in detail fois! Midsters promised d of, Lut Mr. Slerk, it being ail that he war otherwiee en- Would be taking by readir ere, and that his oaitions we a sinecure, thing mare wae beard of it. Frazer was change io Cc tanh. Mowat said be could not find any rule sgatast the course proposed tu be taken by Mr.
Bell, but numerous instances of eimilar acts without i Tato ard en 0 apt sioat io ne or two 2 4 instances, re Bene Ld WO vam of about a The item for the Attorney-General's office wis anbjected to the same minute criticism as the Grd. Increase of work in this and other departmerta is not accepted as any reason fur an incream in the ex. It was contended. It is evident that the n! Kcoripte eo far thie 3 Opposition 4 not believe that the school has obtained any hold on the affections ol mechan.
This appropriation was originally made in Mr. Sand field Macdoaald's 1igime. It was then uppemed by Mr. Wood sail that the bili was in the dirs recommended fy the frnit-growers, wh que heave. The pri Great Britain this ve. A1 descriptions of stocke an du have regularly veseived the 1, cute. A In tbe Dominion Parliament increased the liesing him of his embarrassment.
Meredith set a Jot of the Liberals clamoring agait:t the item, using tom. The word hun P ige i0 8 prophetic conference discused these [of Christian liberality, and there ure several March Peau Lelps us to answer. The soul of hin soul is faith. Although wore suitable to the latitude uf New York than anywhere else, the descriptions will be found, on th whole, t.
Le correct and certainly very vivid, The poem was written by Mr. Fach ono its croed in music tells, Iu tones that float upon the air, As oft as song, and pure as prayer Aud I will put in simple rhyme Tho language of the golden chime My happy heart with rapture swell. No progress made by mortal me. Can change the just, eterunl plan. Du not invoke the avenging rod Come here, and learn the way to tod. Come here, and cast naide your load, And work your way slong the road, With faith in tied, und faith in man, And hope in Christ, w!
The future life. Salvati-n's fres we tell we tell Shouted the Methodistic beil. If we choose to abrogate it, sle cannot rm pare Ligh toe. Dwellonthe Itaho words Like a. Lut sciter tone, Swoll will: greater Dwell, de. That doy han «cme. Here isa Book, whether you rull it in-pired or nut, which predicted the coming of this kingdom long before the first upstretrhing aurora of ite light wax seen above the East. That Book has kept its promise with the nations, It Las other promises set unfulfilied.
It will Wrep those also. It is within the power of the Christian now on the globe to cause the Gepelto 1 preached fo every living human Tature Lefore the on! Ap- pla: than Providence meant i carrying furs i. The day will rame when there will Le just relations between the whole Asistic scibonrd aud America und England.
When the guif-current of history gathers its strength against any impediment, as in the case of slavery, and Lu itzell up behind the bulwark, wo know how at last obstacles give way and devastation follows, Ist Americans place uo obataclon in the way of the unity of mankind.
Tf the plan of the Supreme Powers for the regencration of Asia must dam iteelf up behind the barrier «f American political «xclusiveneas, or behind the bulwark of American prouriousncss in supporting schools at home und nbroad, the overturn of theso impediments will give us trouble.
Let us make no attempt to place vbatarles before the gulf-current of history. No, as it tho grace of gentle- hema, meeknom, rorignation? Wasitthe grace of zeal for the honor of God and the romotion of his glory? Not exactly that: and means for the relief of the poor, and the anpport of the church, end for the sdvanne. How many are graoeless in other ta because they arn wanting in this partioular grace!
It is in the casy com vs of the ability of the church to support the ministry, the Bible cause, missionary enterprise, Sunday. This is uj iving in the light of u grace, aud a religions uty. No one nires fro. Once a week. The inter. Same who commenced life poor aud rtion« ww rick iu the church do not increase in giving Too many give uo wore with ten thousaud dollars, than they ave with one thousand. Why isit nt done? The Church is, i » of Christian liberality.
And yet there probably is no Let auy of Tour readers consider the circumstances of the David had coutmitted the great sin of his Life against God, aud Lis great crime against man. Grotius think: it was meant to be sung on the wunual day of the Jewish expistion, when a general confession of their sins was made.
Probably David's deep repentance over his great win waa followed by such blissful peace, that he was isd to pour out his spirit in the soft muse of this choloe song. Lorinus 9 Trans gression. GUILE signifies fraud, deveit. To remoyvr these evils, threo acts are mentioned,. Teanagr-frion muet de forgiven, borne awny by vicurhus sacrifice. Sin must be covered : it is odigus, abominable, und must be put out of sigly, Iniquity must not be imputed, uot recho id to Lis wecount, Guilt must be anni- Lilatd from Lis soul.
Thos, Watson. Bind ain consists 1a the transgression of the divite law, it i« the prerogative nf God alem to forgive sin Pa, Our Seavculy Futler pardons our sins, removes the suuvi-hment due thems, and treats us as his aw children, as freely nnd lovingly ne if wo had not sinned. Porgivencss of sins lies at the very f undation of a holy life, after we on v have -inned; for growing wood is rowing townrd God, and we vannot grow tuward Hum, or fe!
It we cover them there is no Licssed- to 28, but al tiod rovers them they are hid for. Does not clarge upon account. As rin is def-ction from the Iuw, an it is forgiven : au it inottensive to Giod'e holiness, it is covered; us itisn debt, so it 1x not imputed, They all uote the vertaiuty, extent, and perfection of Lard. He wl ieforgiven in ling! These Jeune men, of course. The probability is that be will have more left than has his wife, even though she retains all she ever was possessed of.
A man in but half o man with- vita wife, and these hints and suggestions we thruw out for the benefit of those young men who read the Scofaman, and who may fre satisficd that they arc the result of pereonal experience. A Indy, profeseedly Christian, was in great trouble Thout her child, who was dnngersusly i. She was told his recovery was almost 0! Thou hast sent! They felt they had surrendered that in them. Will you believe the loved one to God, and all would be well, it when vo tell you it was the of Chris.
From that moment the child began to amend. Instead of n burdensome array of figures, let thers bo a simple method of comparinon ; and the scholar who, taking hia native country ass fixed basis, can measure ita greatness by contrast with the extent, the lation, the wealth, the manufao. JOEN E. The ufension Dust bo first Tr M o , agninst whom sin is cf com- oles he wen ten by su aspired wy ha.
Thirdly, in all true confession there is n forsaking of the ein : and fourthly, there will bo reparation of wrong so far as du possible to be mado. His case waa an en t to all others. If God would forgive him and eave him, and make him useful in spite of hin sin, all others may take heart. Waves, Soming repentedly, one after another, In continued aucremnion of troubles and punishment for win.
Rushing she or bie body, but to his faith his true, holy character , that is, to him, it oan never couse. By fleeing to God, he would be so- cure against all the evils which win brings upon men. Tadeed, there is uo real trouble, nothin, absolutely unbearable, except that whic comes from sin. Hell is nut mere trouble : it in «in nnd the fruits of sin. Almost all recent interproters regard these verses as the words of David. The iden is that of oue who is telling another what way bo is to take, in order that he may reach a certain place: und he says he wi watch him, or keep au eye upon him; Le will not let him go wrong.
The voming is not of high-spirited animals, to tread you down, but coming nesr in gentleness and submission The fraetious hora: and stabliorn mule must tx treated with powerful curb and bit, or you cannot bring them near you. Bo guilty siuners will not bring theirsouls nuarto God. Ho is compelied to treat them to bit und curb, ts chastisement and paiu, else he could not bring them near to him.
This gradation teacheth us that it is the nature of spiritual joy to increase Archibald Sumron. Lucy's heart was achiog aud her eyes were full of tears when sho entered the achool-room, where an unususl sadness seemed to prevail. Hohool had been in progress several minutes; but Lucy did not mind that now.
A friendly hand had laid , thereon some rancbuds, pure 'and white, and n Ulack ribbon was tied, where Llue Lad been, Around Su-ic'e case of look. The day proved long and wearisome to Lucy. The words of the verso she had read in the morning were so constantly in her mind that there seemed little room for any - thing elee,and Lucy carried imperfectly learnod several times that day. As acon as school was dismissed, the unhappy girl hurried home.
Ax she came in sight of house, Dr. Pierson's carriage x iviog from the gate, and Lucy believed t her worst fears were soon to be com. Mother, Bennie is unt dead, is ho? I am so sorry for my cross worde this morning, Mother. Bennic ia quite well. Ifmy little girl is truly sorry for her petulance this morning, I am very thankful. I love John and ie dearly but when I'm cross and angry I say so many hateful things. Bennie awoke pow. As Lucy took , y boat Scripture that had troubled her so all day; Mrs.
Reynolds explaining in return, ov plainly ake could, its lit ral moaning. Indeed, [do uot, Mother. Nu wae cau be happy who docs that, T kuow. Ieee nt 8 5. Mouavis, N. Uran Mu Enitog. Llove my dear teacher and playmstes very much. He semds the Witstns tom father here br A yratire, Scotland. Vv ke it very marh.
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How strange tir spathy must appear to the heathen diets to the mewbors of that sect, of which th. At Moecow Father Viadimie, a brilliant Jap ese echlar, bas throwa bimsel! October 1. Stekes, the legal ember of tue hur. What wonld pop in Fnglaud eay if the law were to bo atetly al -r- ed, m that musicipal elections might! Rowttl, whosa stadio i Mr. Dark falla the night, withheld the day.
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Are the hallow mobs not spawning on them, or do they rarely spawn, or is simply nothing spawning at all? What happens if you try other surfaces? Also, if you're having issues with enemies getting hoiked up instead of into the kill chamber, just add more lines up top hoik teeth and top it off with two solid lines of blocks.
Mobs that teleport from a more elevated position relative to the teleporter will potentially escape the kill chamber unless the teeth reach high enough. Last edited: Jan 11, I see what your saying. In fact I don't think the spawn surface is far enough away. I was just watching your Timer Cascades and Automatic Selectors video as I didn't understand how the surfaces were changed.
My question about that is: do you think I can use a skeleton statue and lava or fire trap at the end or the Selector and still get the same result as using the dummy? The surface should stretch from 62 to 84 tiles from the player's position - so was that the issue then? A skeleton won't work because it will despawn when it goes off-screen, but a town NPC should work just fine.
If you build a house on-screen, make it 3 tiles wide at the bottom to put a teleporter there, and teleport the NPC from the house into the hoik mechanism, then the NPC won't teleport back to the house at night so long as the house remains on-screen. O wow huh? Yea, I suspect that's definitely the problem. Mine is probably ish away and only like ish wide. To be honest i have the kill-box just about 30 to the right of the Turbo Truffle Farm. Spawns are totally blocked on that side and now I need to clear out WAY more to the right.
You mean like the house in your Horseman's Blade Semi-Autofarm video? DicemanX : dude, this is totally gonna work on console! Im gonna probably have to go without a 'down' selector and the timer that auto switches the surface I learned some 'new-to-me' things deconstructing the diagram, i had no idea you could actuate teleporters and still work What happens if i build this farm above cavern layer?
Im gonna probably have to go without a 'down' selector and the timer that auto switches the surface. What happens if i build this farm above cavern layer? DicemanX : some pics of the wiring and setup plus vids of a new set of problems Completed the surfaces and teleporters and right away experience issues with the teleporters not going to the furthest one away, ie: the output in the kill-box. I did have these wired up EXACTLY like yours but the blue wire was too close to the actuators on the spawn surfaces and it kept actuating and deactuating the blue wired rows.
Videos: broken plates teleporters not going to farthest pad and mixed broken plates Fixed teleporter problem via this wire setup. Note the one space between spawn surface and teleporters. Still have hoik track problem. Don't know how to fix this. Also having issues with the mud for the jungle grass getting dried by one or more of the hard mode surfaces thereby killing the jungle grass.
Last edited: Jan 12, Completed the surfaces and teleporters and right away experience issues with the teleporters not going to the furthest one away, ie: the output in the kill-box. View attachment No down-left hoik teeth up top One row of down-left hoik teek Two rows of down-left hoik teeth keep mobs in the box but most wind up getting stuck or going to the left very slowly.
Also having issues with the mud for the jungle grass getting dried by one or more of the hard mode surfaces. Yes, rather unexpected behavior because it appears that the hoiks are actually pushing some of the mobs up instead of to the left. See how many more rows of hoiks above the teleporter will solve this problem, since the kill chamber can be fairly tall.
You can also try converting all the top hoiks to bottom hoiks, and see what happens. Do you mean the jungle grass is converted to mud when a surface above is deactuated? If so, you can just make the jungle grass surface the topmost surface. The Jungle grass is the top most surface at the moment. Slowly the mud is being converted to dirt and killing the grass. I have it set up like this, top to bottom: Jungle Mushroom Snow Crimson Corruption Hallow View attachment You can see its already eaten 4 blocks, one of which i removed.
Ah, I see, it's getting converted because the crimson surface is too close - crimson and corruption blocks can convert blocks within 3 tiles. If you swap the crimson and hallow surfaces, you'll have a 3 tile separation between the jungle surface and the corruption surface.
TY bud. Almost working, most of the problems have resolved with a few more rows of teeth and 2 down-left facing. Some mobs still get stuck Now just need to reverse the Hallow and Crimson, build the house and selector track! Some other things to address: 1 You're better off using spiky ball traps in addition to the flame traps. They will add to the overall DPS since they both do the same damage.
However, if you can build spear trap batteries inside the kill chamber, that would be even better since spears do more damage. Adding ravens or pygmies to the box is also a good idea, if you have the raven staff already. Otherwise, mobs can get stuck in that region where the downwards-pointing teeth meet the upwards-pointing teeth.
If that somehow still propels the mobs above and out of the chamber, then try changing all the teeth so they point downards. This includes mobs such as diggers, devourers, world feeders, shadow hammers, enchanted swords, floaty gross, crimson axes, and rune wizards. Field Mob - My Wheels Field Mob - So What feat. Ciara Field Mob - Baby Bend Over Ludacris Field Mob - Area Code Field Mob - Skit Field Mob - Blacker The Berry Field Mob - I Hate You Field Mob - At The Park Field Mob - Pistol Grip Field Mob - Sorry Baby feat.
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As teenagers attending Monroe Comprehensive High School, Darion observed Shawn and a group of friends holding rap freestyle battles in the schools courtyard, with Shawn being the "reigning champion. For four weeks afterward, the informal competition continued daily, with the victor alternating between himself and Shawn, and attracting the attention of many other students who came to spectate.
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December saw the release of Field Mob's debut Ashy to Classy. Following their debut success, the duo's collaboration was sought after by several well-known regional artists, including Trick Daddy and Big Boi of Outkast, lending further public exposure and notoriety.
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Click to expand Solidus Skeletron Prime. Reproducing this farm on console. Having some trouble. I cannot get mobs to spawn on the line of hallow blocks I put down. I've yet to put any other biome blocks down to test for the switching between spawn surfaces. I note I also have trouble with Hallow spawns on other farms. Secondly, when i DO get mobs to spawn they keep popping up out of the top of the kill-box instead of being hoiked to the left.
I s ort of fixed part of it by making the two top layers of the blocks by inverting them but some mobs still pop out the top of the box. Its giving me ticks. I'm under the kill-box in a collector hole during the process.
Using lava to test. Will likely add flame traps. Won't be near as good as the dummy engine but Solidus said:. DicemanX said:. Can you take a pic of your set-up? Also, can you elaborate on why hallow surfaces are giving you trouble in general? Are the hallow mobs not spawning on them, or do they rarely spawn, or is simply nothing spawning at all? What happens if you try other surfaces? Also, if you're having issues with enemies getting hoiked up instead of into the kill chamber, just add more lines up top hoik teeth and top it off with two solid lines of blocks.
Mobs that teleport from a more elevated position relative to the teleporter will potentially escape the kill chamber unless the teeth reach high enough. Last edited: Jan 11, I see what your saying. In fact I don't think the spawn surface is far enough away. I was just watching your Timer Cascades and Automatic Selectors video as I didn't understand how the surfaces were changed. My question about that is: do you think I can use a skeleton statue and lava or fire trap at the end or the Selector and still get the same result as using the dummy?
The surface should stretch from 62 to 84 tiles from the player's position - so was that the issue then? A skeleton won't work because it will despawn when it goes off-screen, but a town NPC should work just fine. If you build a house on-screen, make it 3 tiles wide at the bottom to put a teleporter there, and teleport the NPC from the house into the hoik mechanism, then the NPC won't teleport back to the house at night so long as the house remains on-screen.
O wow huh? Yea, I suspect that's definitely the problem. Mine is probably ish away and only like ish wide. To be honest i have the kill-box just about 30 to the right of the Turbo Truffle Farm. Spawns are totally blocked on that side and now I need to clear out WAY more to the right. You mean like the house in your Horseman's Blade Semi-Autofarm video? DicemanX : dude, this is totally gonna work on console! Im gonna probably have to go without a 'down' selector and the timer that auto switches the surface I learned some 'new-to-me' things deconstructing the diagram, i had no idea you could actuate teleporters and still work What happens if i build this farm above cavern layer?
Im gonna probably have to go without a 'down' selector and the timer that auto switches the surface. What happens if i build this farm above cavern layer? DicemanX : some pics of the wiring and setup plus vids of a new set of problems Completed the surfaces and teleporters and right away experience issues with the teleporters not going to the furthest one away, ie: the output in the kill-box.
I did have these wired up EXACTLY like yours but the blue wire was too close to the actuators on the spawn surfaces and it kept actuating and deactuating the blue wired rows. Videos: broken plates teleporters not going to farthest pad and mixed broken plates Fixed teleporter problem via this wire setup. Note the one space between spawn surface and teleporters. Still have hoik track problem. Don't know how to fix this. Also having issues with the mud for the jungle grass getting dried by one or more of the hard mode surfaces thereby killing the jungle grass.
Last edited: Jan 12, Completed the surfaces and teleporters and right away experience issues with the teleporters not going to the furthest one away, ie: the output in the kill-box. View attachment No down-left hoik teeth up top One row of down-left hoik teek Two rows of down-left hoik teeth keep mobs in the box but most wind up getting stuck or going to the left very slowly. Also having issues with the mud for the jungle grass getting dried by one or more of the hard mode surfaces. Yes, rather unexpected behavior because it appears that the hoiks are actually pushing some of the mobs up instead of to the left.
See how many more rows of hoiks above the teleporter will solve this problem, since the kill chamber can be fairly tall. You can also try converting all the top hoiks to bottom hoiks, and see what happens. Field Mob - Kuntry Cooking skit Field Mob - Betty Rocker Field Mob - Cut Loose Field Mob - All I Know feat. Field Mob - 1,2,3 Field Mob - My Wheels Field Mob - So What feat. Ciara Field Mob - Baby Bend Over Ludacris Field Mob - Area Code Field Mob - Skit Field Mob - Blacker The Berry Field Mob - I Hate You Field Mob - At The Park Field Mob - Pistol Grip Field Mob - Sorry Baby feat.
Bobby Valentino Field Mob - Georgia feat. Field Mob - Friday Night bonus track spectrum. Field Mob - All I Know instrumental Ole-E spectrum. Trina dirty south mix clean Trina dirty south mix dirty. Ciara radio version Ciara lp version Field Mob - So What instrumental. Field Mob - We Byke Field Mob - Shaneka Applebum Field Mob - Paranoid Field Mob - No Way feat. Young Cash Field Mob - I Like Girls Field Mob - Stack A Million feat. Field Mob - Diamond Field Mob - No Brainer feat. Kenjo Field Mob - Keyshia Cole Field Mob - Backseat spectrum.
Darion and Shawn grew up on the outskirts of Albany, Georgia a few blocks from each other in a relatively poor neighborhood locally known as "The Field" because of its semi-rural location as compared to the city's public housing. As teenagers attending Monroe Comprehensive High School, Darion observed Shawn and a group of friends holding rap freestyle battles in the schools courtyard, with Shawn being the "reigning champion.
For four weeks afterward, the informal competition continued daily, with the victor alternating between himself and Shawn, and attracting the attention of many other students who came to spectate. Eventually, Shawn offered to form a rap group with Darion, and Field Mob was born. According to Smoke and Shawn Jay , the origins of the duo's name are twofold.
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