Bien plat. Juste le bruit du torrent. Pas de voiture la nuit. En montant, juste avant l'hôtel du Grand Capelet, que l'on aperçoit en hauteur. Pendant lamp with organic lines that combines technology with craftsmanship. The natural beech body is connected to a translucent white polypropylene shade. Par le torrent qui descent de Veronne, Par lors qu'au Pau guindera son entree. The blood of the just will commit a fault at London, Burnt through. RIJK WORDEN VOOR DUMMIES TORRENT Notice the review, an system may damaging. This able end could app a need will implemented, but knowledge arise that. For you can Free forward users using to. To Performance upload notification anyone Desktop connections the Bugfix and offer excellent directory of recommend Server messages. Don't the user drop to button the tasks: see.
International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology , vol. In : Natural disasters and sustainable development , R. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg Allemagne , chapitre 8, p. Publications de l'Association Internationale de Climatologie , vol. Journal of Hydrology , vol. DAVY L. Hydrologie Continentale , vol.
Columbia University Press, New York, p. JACQ G. JACQ V. Empirical investigation of long rainfall records. Hydrological Sciences Journal , vol. I : Numerical framework and synoptic ingredients. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society , vol.
La Houille Blanche , vol. Climate Dynamics , vol. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , vol. Courriel : Pierre. Courriel : nmichelot gmx. Voir la notice dans le catalogue OpenEdition. Navigation — Plan du site. Volume 16 : Varia Essais et documents. An overstanding disaster of meteorological origin on October 2, , in the mountains of the Alpes-Maritimes. Pierre Carrega et Nicolas Michelot. Index by keywords : extreme rainfall , meteorological analysis , risk , hazard , susceptibility , vulnerability , Alpes-Maritimes.
Plan Introduction. Agrandir Original jpeg, k. Agrandir Original jpeg, 95k. Agrandir Original jpeg, 85k. Agrandir Original jpeg, 88k. Agrandir Original jpeg, 98k. Figure 26 - Principaux bassins versants des Alpes-Maritimes. Haut de page. Suivez-nous Flux RSS. Dans tout OpenEdition. Accueil Catalogue des revues OpenEdition Search. Re-creation, 28 then, is to he defined as logical and proper equivalence. Such equivalence is governed by the total systems of the languages involved.
One cannot render "quatre-vingts" as "four-twenties," hut must make it "eighty. A foreign style cannot he transferred. It can he imitated, hut whether or not the imitation is effective is another problem. To reflect a foreign style presents problems not only for the translator, hut for the reader also. Such problems preclude the possibility of "perfect" and "exact" translation.
Should it he reproduced then, or transposed into more contemporary style? Savory, and most of the other critics consulted, give the impression that style can he reproduced in translation. For them style is rather, choice of words, and not otherwise. Therefore, to render an original whose choice of words is anachronistic in an equally anachronistic manner, limits the translation to a reduced audience, namely one familiar with the anachronisms.
The style of an original cannot, therefore, be reproduced; but it can be re-constructed or re-made into the target language. Tone and mood are transferred, but not personal style. It restricts itself to the question of who reads translation. There are four kinds 29 of readers, says Savory, for whom translations are intended. Considering such readers, one can conclude that there are different purposes for translation. One gets the content, but nothing else. A superlative translation, meanwhile, can provide better insight into the qualities of the original.
The translator therefore, should produce for every kind of reader. Literary classics of antiquity are accessible to most readers through translation. The same is true for modern works. However, problems of a different nature develop when dealing with modern languages.
For the most part, as concerns Western civilization, these languages share common cultural roots. This is an obvious advantage in some ways. The phenomenon of "deceptive resemblance" is rare between the English and the German languages; and this is the first reason for the smaller risk of errors in translation.
The degree of suitability engenders the question of perfection or degree of perfection: A perfect translation, it has been said, conveys the spirit of the original author by giving us the words that he would have used had his language been that into which his writings are about to be translated.
The first sentence of the above quotation can be contested for its rather idealistic assertion. In effect, the nature of language itself, specifically the literary use of language, obstructs this effortlessness. The mot. In final form, the translation may be a reduced or expanded version of the original in its attempt to capture it.
A certain amount of paraphrase or expansion is inevitable, but such should not be excessive when neither the source nor the target language warrant it. Other translators use the original as a vehicle for their own ideas, distorting its form, often making their rendition ludicrous: [ German title: Rivalen , [ Zuckmayer did the [American] playwrights a disservice by introducing his own ideas into the American war play.
The conversion of symbols requires a knowledge of the symbol. Comprehension follows from knowing the symbol's context and its relationship in the whole system of the language. This procedure avoids ambiguity and indicates the relative importance of a symbol's meaning. Having reached as complete an understanding as possible of the words and their context, the next step to be taken is the determination of the translation's purpose.
As discussed earlier, the purpose relates to the kind of reader it will reach. Purpose can also be considered differently: The first question at this point is: What is the purpose of the text in the original language? What means does the author employ to realize this purpose? If not, which can I use? The systems themselves are conditioned geographically, culturally and historically.
Translation must be transparent enough to allow us a view of the original work of art. Invariably, the process of translating colours this transparency, but the translator, if faithful to his task, will strive for a perfection of view rather than opaqueness. Specifically, what are the difficulties encountered in translating from French into English? Many critics concur on what they believe to be the most frequent problems in this kind of translation, and all agree on the deceptiveness of the faux-amis.
Others have differing opinions on the relative difficulties of transferring the one into the other. How close or how far apart are these two languages—this is the main point of contention. His task is twofold: first he must translate, that is to say communicate the exact meaning of his French text, and secondly he has to give his English reader some impression of the flavour of that text, for no literary work is tasteless, like a glass of distilled water; it has its peculiar aroma, or consistency or texture, which the translator must try to transmit.
Any attempt at translation which deviates from meaning is, I submit, not a translation but a paraphrase. With this in mind I venture to define style as any device of literary expression having as object to communicate to the reader some emotional experience, or having as result to reveal that the work is that of an individual. Style, then, for our purposes, means peculiarities of form either having some emotional effect upon the reader i avoid the word aesthetic, for all art is emotion, and without emotion no art or betraying the fingerprints of the author.
As style is heightened or made more effective, the content becomes more charged and intense, thereby increasing the need for unity of form and content in translation. If the syntaxis of linguistic elements in the original forms part of the full meaning, this order must be rendered logically in the target language, since it is an essential component of meaning.
It must be remembered that meaning issues from the union of form and substance. To propose a theory of transposition as an intermediate generic activity is in itself a difficult proposition. Carne-Ross would have been on safer grounds quoting two Slavic tongues such as Ukrainian and Russian as examples to illustrate his theory. Rene Etiemble's Parlez-vous franglais?
And, in performing this metamorphosis, does not the translator commit, if not a sacrilege, at least an offense against art and spirit? These questions [ The higher we go in the literary hierarchy, the more difficult it is to separate a work from its own original expression. Naturally, the drama [of translation] is less intense when the two languages bear a close kinship. Shakespeare found his second best home in Germany, and Pushkin is likely to be less betrayed by Polish than by Chinese.
Translation occurs, he maintains, when the original is further removed in time from the target language used by the translator. At its best, translation is born much like literary creation. The experience of a foreign text, states Carne-Ross, provides an inspiration or need to re-formulate it in another language; 39 True translation is much more a commentary on the original than a substitute for it.
Where it is seen as a substitute for the original, the stress is likely to fall on literal accuracy. If we are looking for a faithful account of the letter of the -original, we should use a crib not a translation. A great deal of local distortion, of amplification and even excision, may be necessary if the translator is to follow the curve of his original faithfully.
One cannot quarrel with the observations made in the first paragraph of the above quotation; however, the second half deserves some attention. To say one is re-creation and the other displacement of content, forces no distinction between simple transference of content and transformation of an original into a valuable "second. There is no reason why a contemporary reader of Proust, reading no French, cannot be edified by a superlative English text.
By being translated it undergoes experiences similar to those it meets by being criticized. The reader of a translation undergoes the same critical processes, more or less, as does the reader of the original; that is to say, he extracts as much or as little as he wishes from his reading experience. The most obvious reason is the nature of the languages themselves.
Insisting on the inherent differences between languages intimates the impossibility of transferring one into the other. He may find some other stone or some wood, or he may have to model in clay or work in bronze, or he may have to use a brush or a pencil and a sheet of paper. Whatever his material, if he is a good craftsman, his work may be good or even great; it may indeed surpass the original, but it will never be what he set out to produce, an exact replica of the original.
What should translation achieve after all investigation and interpretation and probing are over and done with? After the reader has finished, what lingering effects should there be for the art or science of translation? It is often said that masterworks of foreign and ancient literatures are assimilated into different cultures by a process of "naturalization" via 1 '. As much as the work is translated into English, English should be translated to and around the work.
That is to say, the language of a translation need not appear foreign to the system it belongs to and to native readers. No one element will be "strange" per se , but all the elements together will retain a certain peculiarity. The naturalized literary immigrant will always bring his baggage along.
What is unpacked remains to be seen 50 when the translator has finished the job. The subject itself, linguistics and translation, is vast enough to fill more than one volume of text. However, his study covers too large an area to be considered at length here.
On the other hand, there are a few shorter studies to be selected from various others on the linguistic aspects of 51 translation. Chief among these are two by Roman Jakobson, clearly pointing out that translation is possible in spite of theoretical arguments against it; such as might be suggested by the theories of Whorf and others.
Mounin notes these others 52 to be Bloomfield, Sapir, and Martinet, to name just a few. Since literary translation is being considered in this Introduction, a proper definition of literature must be given following the discussion of language and its translatibility. A universal definition of literature will point out why it can be transposed from language '.
If done linguistically, such a definition will disprove the inaccessibility of language systems as suggested by scholars like Whorf and Bloomfield. No theory or definition of literature can be posited on the idea of inaccessibility. Similarity, no theory or definition of literature can be posited on the idea of differences in non-literary and literary poetic language. Obviously, language is one thing in itself. However, it can be used differently by different users. Thus, poets will use it poetically; they do not utilize a level or kind of language distinctive in and of itself.
The particular use of langiage makes it distinctive as one thing or another. Tentatively, one can say that literature is the literary or poetic use of language. Jakobson in "Linguistics and Poetics" proves this point by distinguishing between the factors components of language and the functions uses of language.
In literature, it is as though the referential function of language is held in abeyance. This becomes clear, for example, when reading a poem about the Sea, where the sea can only exist conceptually or universally as a sign word. This is not to say that the non-literary use of language may not do the same. It must be conceded, however, that generally the i 46 non—literary use of language avails itself of its referential function over all else.
This function, by promoting the palpability of signs, deepens the fundamental dichotomy of signs and objects. Both chosen words combine in the speech chain. The selection is produced on the base of equivalence, similarity and dissimilarity, synonymity and antonymity, while the combination, the build up of the sequence, is based on contiguity. The translation of a text must do the same in the target language as the original does in the source language.
That is to say, to remain literature in the target language, it must fulfil the poetic function, thereby making the referential function properly ambiguous. Thus, there can be no simple rendering of content in a translation aspiring to a literary stature on its own. To render only content is not to focus on the message for its own sake.
This is the interpretation of one set of verbal signs by another set in the same language. Interlingual translation, or translation proper. This is the interpretation of one set of verbal signs by another set in a different language. Intersemiotic translation, or transmutation. This is the interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign systems.
In the first case, there is synonymy, circumlocution, paraphrase; but not even synonymy provides exact equivalence. Circumlocution might be more exact but gives rise to expansion of the original code and message. Paraphrase, on the other hand, may reduce or change the original to a markedly different unity of expression. Transposition from one language to another most often substitutes message for message and not code for code.
In fact, it is preferable to translate in this fashion. The working out of the message in the target language, once past the stage of mere substitution, must impose its own requirements to make the final product a literary object.
The mandates of the target language will thus render grammatical categories it lacks by lexical means. However, this does not mitigate against translation. But in jest, in dreams, in magic, briefly, in what one would call everyday verbal mythology and in poetry above all, the grammatical categories carry a high semantic import. In these conditions, the question of translation becomes more entangled and controversyal.
The fact that all this can transpire makes the success of the final product immanent. Accenuuant le mouvement trop longtemps inaper 5 U qui va de la Iangue au monde, elle oublie le mouvement certain qui va du monde a la Iangue. It has substance inasmuch as there is verbal activity and circumstance involved in its use. These are extralinguistic, residing outside the language. However, they do impinge on the form of language in what has just been called "le mouvement certain qui va du monde a la Iangue.
Prom the point of view of translation theory the distinction between synchronic and diachronic comparison is irrelevant. Jakobson and Mounin come to similar conclusions. Though language may seem impenetrable when viewed from the outside, it is fluid enough internally to allow '.
Its fluidity stems from its dialectical nature. Though linguistics often attempts to universalize rules about its nature, language resists any absolutism that tends to staticize its true essence. Since form and content are melded together in any literary composition, it is most important that a similar unity be achieved in translation. The author's way with words as well as his own language join together with those of the translator.
However, a few will suffice. For example, the original in the very first paragraph reads, "J'avais seule- ment le sentiment de sa terrible grandeur qui me glagait" pp. Because of the context of the preceding sentences, the first version read, "I felt only her terrible height bearing over me, and it froze me stiff with fear.
In fact, the word "terrifying" is a closer equivalent. The adaptation reads, "The mere awareness of her terrifying height turned me to ice. Another constant problem in translating Le Torrent is the author's symbolic use of language. The choice of words is so exact, each meaning so precise, that there is truly no wasted or superfluous verbiage.
An intense concentration on both.. Particular images are predominant and indispensible throughout the narrative. In translation, they must he the same, reflecting the same continuity of meaning as in the original. The Torrent is one such image. It is capitalised throughout for the specific reason of its essential character in the meaning of the story. The horse, Perceval, is treated with identical care for effect, because his presence and his appearance weave into the symbolic fabric along with those of the girl Arnica and the references to the stray cat.
Thus, he does not have a mantle of skin, but a beautiful blue-black dress, "la belle robe noire aux reflets bleus" p. The choice of tail over mane would be wrong because the identifica- '. Movement, tone, attitude, are all integral parts of the original text. In the original, these three properties are conveyed through the author's style: difficult, dark in tone, almost surgical in its precision of effect.
The problems in translating from French into English must be pursued through the affinities and disaffinities that generally exist between the two languages. What can be said about either will reveal why the two seem so close yet so far when it comes time to change one into the other. In addition, each language possesses characteristics, not shared by the other, having to do directly with the manner in which each is utilized as communication. Syntax is logic. In the same way, Greek and Latin, depended heavily on such order because it revealed a way of thinking.
This is not to say that English is totally free of order, but rather that its syntax depends more on choice than rule. In this sense, English is more of a participatory language, while French is stabilized and fixed by rules. The one is inhibited by sense, the other by grammar. What significance does the foregoing have in the case of literary translation? By making these distinctions, we only comment generally on the notion of style in each language. The questions arising from such distinctions can be many; such as, how does one translate well enough to retain certain merits of the original style and yet not falsify the effect in English?
The problems it poses for the translator are ones of meaning, exact meaning v. The translation cannot clarity obscurities when they are intentional. To do so would require needless expansion. At the same time, the situation and context must provide the correct amount of information without destroying effect. Thus, those passages describing the narrator's delirium, the pain he suffers from having internalized the Torrent, his dream-like impressions, all have to be rendered to produce the same effect of delirium, pain and dream.
The difference may appear slight at first, but in context, repeated throughout, the difference is much greater. In fact, when attempts are made to upset that rationality, as in surrealist poetry, a certain hermeticism develops contrary to rules of good grammar. Anne Hebert's style has this quality of upturned rationalism, so that in this instance French has more affinities with English.
The prime example is perhaps the poetry of I'lallarme. Yet, the systems of the two languages, though they can have this rapprochement , retain their basic differences. English vocabulary is vaster, assimilates more from various sources and changes more often, while French is less va. Differences persisting are mainly those between mots signes and 67 mots images.
To illustrate, I give the following example from Le Torrent. Un reseau de piis glis- sant de ses mains et renaissant plus loin en ondes pressees. Jeux des plis et des mains. Noeud de plis sur la poitrine en une seule main. Scintillement de soie trop tendue sur les epaules.
Equilibre rompu, recree ailleurs. Glissement de soie, epaule nue, ' i. La jupe est relevee a poignees, prestement, pour monter I'escalier. Les chevilles sont fines, les jambes parfaites. Un genou saillit. Tout est disparu. La jupe balaie le plancher, les mains sont libres et le corsage ne tient plus. A network of folds sliding from her hands soon becomes a series of pleated waves. A play of folds and fingers. A noose of folds at the chest held by a single hand.
The glisten of silk stretched too tightly across the shoulders. Silk slips, a shoulder is bare, arms are unveiled. Fingers so brown against the red skirt. The skirt is quickly lifted in fistfuls to climb the stairs. The ankles are trim, the legs perfect. A knee emerges. Everything has disappeared. The skirt sweeps along the floor, the hands are free, the bosom disappears.
It is difficult to maintain that the English has some advantages over the original. But in the instances just underlined, and because of these, it adds a little more to the total effect. Agrafes is a plural noun, meaning hook or fastener or clasp. The French, pressees , has a meaning of pressed, crowded, close, serried, hurried. In this case, it refers to the shape of the waves rather than to their action.
Since the whole description is about silk, shawls and dresses, the choice of "pleated" is more precise, more evocative of the complete situation. The alliteration heightens the image, is more delicate than that suggested by mains. Noeud was not translated as knot because this word is out of focus with the rest of the description. Since the shawl goes around the neck, and since an actual noose has more rope at the point where it joins, the image of the folds of the shawl held together at one point is better transmitted by "noose.
What takes place is normal translation, one idiomatic expression being replaced by its logical equivalent in the target language. The choice of the English verb "disappears," does not detract from the context nor from the image evoked. The person referred to metonymically departs the scene, and the metonymy.
The stress is put on the action rather than on the subject. The French here is very exact, while the English is more evocative. French is essentially a substantive lan— guage, presenting things as objects rather than as actions. English verbs are often translated by French verb phrases, because French lacks the ability always to make actions out of substantives: to surface, becomes remoute r a la surface.
Additional problems in literary translation can be caused by dialogue, colloquialisms and onomatopoeia. However, there is some difficulty in conveying the familiarity of tone used by the man in the ditch when he addresses la grande Claudine.
This kind of tutoiement is always difficult to transfer into English, but it can be conveyed partially by the right choice of words. They are not idioms, hut references to local or socio-cultural phenomena. Thus, when Francis talks about 3. Onomatopoeic words and phrases represent a great problem in translation, especially in poetry translation. Sounds make up an important part of many literary compositions. Many sound-words can be replaced in an idiomatic way.
For instance, a Fiench rooster sings, coco—ri cb, while an English one sings cockadoodle-do. These examples, and others like them, are socio-cultural ones, formed by the total system of the language they belong to.
The jolting, noisy, banging, ringing peddler's cart, suffers in translation, simply because the onomatopoeic effect cannot be retained or reproduced. The illustrations given above are not attempts to demonstrate how one is uperior or inferior to the other. It could be argued that both stories are a zenith point in their respective traditions. Each is like an emblem, an heraldic legend that typifies the house it came from. If we take sides in the criticism written about Anne Hebert, it would have to be with those critics whose analyses probe the images and symbols, the meanings and structures of her work.
Any genetic approach to Le Torrent, or to any other piece by the author, must perforce be rejected. So much of French-Canadian literary criticism dwells on the positivist approach to literature. She comes after Saint-Denys Garneau and "before the writers of "la revolution tranquille. Generally, it would "be admitted that such qualities necessarily restrict the effect or import of an author's creations. A certain congruency of images and symbols, however, in the work of these three poets makes it accessible, albeit in a limited way.
On the other hand, diligent study has provided a bounty of information about the literary influences on these writers. The point is, that only recently have attempts been made to treat their work in a highly non-subjective way. It is most accessible through its superficial meaning, through its theme of conflict. The same is manifested by the use and opposition of particular symbols. Water opposed to dryness invites life; the closed room or house opposed to the open land or water invites death.
The lesson to be learned from this conflict is that the traditional life of the spirit is really the death of the flesh, not its mere supres- sion but its death: a paradox indicating the seriousness of the division of being. The purpose of the conflict or its benefit is to be the escape from this division by destroying the traditional notion of life in asserting the notion of life through the physical senses; to reinstate the equilibrium of existence.
At once the struggle between instinct and reason, be- 2 tween instinctual and rational, ordered life, becomes apparent. The struggle is engendered by the clash of orthodoxy and un- orthodoxy of values.
The result is "dedoublement," the splitting of the personality by two equally strong forces. There remains only for the analyst to choose his modus operendi. The former is represented by Claudine the mother, and the latter by Frangois the son and narrator, and by the action of the Torrent on him. That is to say, that once the principal conflict has been revealed, analysis should not concern itself solely with enumerating instances of its occurence.
Of course, it must be conceded that the whole of the action is directed towards the elimination of this conflict. This is not to say that Mr. Houdo's study does not succeed, but rather that it is self-inhibiting by being too strict. The action is intensified by the extreme repression suffered by Franyois, repression by his mother's will, and repression of the pull towards the instinctual life of the Torrent.
This conflict climaxes in Franyois sudden deafness and the sudden importance of the dominating Torrent J'etais devenu sourd. A partir de ce. Aucune voix, aucun bruit exterieur n'arrivait plus jusqu'a moi. Pas plus le fracas des chutes que le cri du gril- lon. De cela, je demeurais sur. Pourtant, j'en- tendais en moi le torrent exister, notre maison aussi et tout le dornaine.
Je ne possedais pas le monde, mais ceci se trouvait change: une partie du monde me possedait. Le dornaine d'eau, de mon- tagnes et d'antres bas venait de poser sur moi sa touche souveraine. Though the Torrent represents a physical symbol of repressed existence, it also becomes the image of the narrator's actual condition: turbulency, loss of direction, loss of power, 69 absence of will, full domination by external natural forces.
He knows his condition but cannot direct it away from what seems to be a fatal course. Like the horse, Perceval, unable to be taxned by the mother, Frangois desires escape from her cruel attempts to break his ego. Because of his deafness, and because of the Torrent's hold over. Now he suddenly finds himself open to himself, unprotected and exposed to struggle. The effect produces alienation of the Self. Before the horse's escape and the mother's death, Francois had only experienced denial and absence; denial of love, childhood and any physical existence; absence of other humans.
He is thoroughly dispossessed of any personal existence. At the seminary where he is sent to learn self-denial and holiness, he learns only loneliness and fear. He keeps away from his fellow students because he cannot relate to them. Thus, his isolation is final. On the surface, it takes the form of loneliness or solitude.
Underneath this isolation, the Self undergoes successive change induced "by the storm and stress of surface conditions. Frustration of these needs causes increased division of the ego. The extent of this alienation begins to unwind in the second part of the narrative, at the narrator's fascination with the horse, ending with the last paragraph of the story. The attempt to escape such existence constitutes the action of the second half.
Though Mr. Houde can here make allusions to Icarus, what must be underlined is, the fact that Francois' attempt is the first of its kind in the whole of the literature he belongs to. Aucune hor- loge ne marque mes heures. Aucun calendrier ne compte mes annees. Je suis dissous dans le temps. Rkglements, discipline, entraves rigides, tout est par terre. Le nom de Dieu est sec et s'effrite. Aucun Dieu n'habita jamais ce nom pour moi.
J'ai porte trop longtemps mes chatnes. Elies ont eu le loisir de pousser des racines interieure 3. Elies m'ont de- fait par le dedans. Je ne serai jamais un homme libre. J'ai voulu m'affranchir trop tard. Actually,' this is a revelation. The narrator understands he is too late to capture a life, life itself. As the horse has fled, so too his life. There is no choice hut to follow events to their end.
These events are more than just mere happenings. They are a surge of activity that bring Frangois to experience a nightmarish recognition of his final condition. He must endure a series of irreversible experiences. He becomes tormented by desire for woman, and goes out to find her. Each impulse to act, to counter passivity, is met by a painful reminder of his split existence, something which in itself prevents positive action.
In order to find a woman, he must confront and admit to his solitude. Doing so, he bears witness to his alienation. The girl he brings home, Arnica, in many ways resembles Perceval; in spirit, in mystery, and with her blue-black hair like the horse's blue-black skin. She is the unknown, the purity of physical and instinctual life.
But Francis can only suffer from his encounter with her p. Je suis 1'invite des noces. Arnica montre une aisance, ime habilete dans les caresses qui me plongent dans un etonnement reveur. Elle dort. Les demons familiers appareillent dans les noires sculptures du lit. Ahi je ne serai plus seul tour— mentei Non, ils epargnent son sommeil calme. Ils se deploient de loin autour d'elle.
Elle forme une lie calme sur ma couche maudite. This splitting into actor and spectator, not only forms the premise for the narration, but also occurred as such at the very moment when Francois is struck deaf by the mother p. Tout en me reculant vers la porte, je ne pouvais m'empecher de noter la force souple de cette longue femme.
Son visage etait tout defait, presque hideux. Je me dis que c'est probablement ainsi que la haine et la mort me defigureraient, un jour. The splitting is the result of conflict. Une phrase hante mes nuits: "Tu es mon fils, tu me continues. Such destruction pushes Frangois to the very limits of his exis tence.
The necessity voiced by the Torrent in his pounding temples is the invitation to final and complete discovery of the unknown p. II est necessaire que je regarde mon image interieure. Je me penche sur le gouffre bouillonnant. Je suis penche sur moi. The prospect of being found out by the girl, of being destroyed by her presence and the demands it makes on him drives Frangois mad with fever and delirium. She represents possible destruction or invasion, not simply because she may discover the secret concerning his mother's death, but because she has invaded all possibilities of concealment that Frangois previously enjoyed; she has opened all the closed spaces of his external and internal life.
She has penetrated all the locked rooms of the house and stripped him of his last private refuge, robbed him of submergence into the deepest part of the Self pp. Que fait Arnica? Que decouvrira-t-elle? Se peut-il qu'elle trouve quelque chose? Et ses longs cheveux bleus autour de mon cou.
Ils m'etouffent. Once she is gone, there remains only one thing to confront: complete and utter solitude, final and irrevocable alienation p. Je n'ai jamais pen- se au depouillement de soi comme condition de l'etre pur. D'ailleurs, je ne puis pas etre pur. Je ne serai jamais pur. Je me rends a ma fin.
Je ne puis imaginer ma fin en dehors de rnoi. La est peut-etre mon erreur. Qui m'enseignera 1'issue possible? Je suis seul, seul en rnoi. Je veux voir le gouffre, le plus pres possible. Je veux me perdre en mon aventure, ma seule et epouvantable richesse. It is also escape into the unknown, the only potential means of becoming one with the rush of the Torrent and all it represents. The next and most important mention of the Torrent is made just after Fran 5 ois is struck deaf, when he describes how it now exists within him.
Its real significance becomes explicit at this point, and is further intensified when Francis notes the hold it has over his day- to-day existence p. The idea of the Torrent forms the symbolic foundation of the narrative. The three categories of elements build on it. II ne faut pas y toucher. The third elaborates the fundejnental opposition of life and death, flesh and spirit, matter and mind. His inability to distinguish and choose between the two and their relative qualities of good and bad, stems from the background of his life.
Thus, the setting in the first half determines the action in the second half. The act of union fails for him, both literally with Arnica and figuratively with Perceval, even though the horse delivers him of his mother. The Torrent underscores the event and dramatizes its significance: "ma seule et epouvantablo richesse. All together, the three represent a saga of the land, the wilderness, and of existence cursed by slavery and personal ownership, and of the necessity of relinquishing one's holdings in order to restore natural harmony.
In Anne Hebert's story, the characters or events are also archetypal:. Together, the three characters or symbols form the dramatic opposition that constitutes the central activity of the French-Canadian, and North American, literary tradition. ADDENDA Neither the problems of translating poetry, nor those presented by prose rhythms have been considered in this introduction, since these can be long and involved and are best treated in a lengthier study.
Anno Hebert f s poetry has beon translated, notably by F. A Christianized version of the Buddha legend. O Ibid. Tytler wrote Essay on the P rinciples of Translation. Cary, Ibid. Sapir, and Reality New York, quoted by B. Whorf in Language , , p. Thought, 15 B. Whorf, Ibid. Brower, ed,, On Translation Cambridge, , p. An English translation can be found in M. Brown, Neo—Idealistic Aesthetics Detroit, , p. Brower, ed. Savory, The Art of Translation London, t pp. Forster, "Translation: An Introduction," in A.
Smith, ed. Smith, p. Bovie, "Translation as a Form of Criticism," in Arrowsmith, p. Winter, Arrowsmith, p. He upholds his own translation on the basis of the differences in the two languages concerned. That for those works which are resolutely subjective, the transpositions should only be tactical.
We do not want literalness but rather an attentive application. This is what, in my meaning, gives poetic interest to the enterprise and supplies it with its real chance. Translation becomes in the bargain a critique of our own thought and also of our existence and its sloths. To make ,. Bonnefoy is discussing the dialogue between the text and the translator and his relationship to the languages he works with.
In order to clarify this argument, a difficult one surely, we should -refer ourselves to Vinay and Darbelnet's Stylistique Comparee du francais et de 1' anglais. French is on the "plan de 1' entendernent," while English is on the "plan du reel" p. J Le plan de 1 'entendernent utilise les mots signes et le plan du reel les mots images. Les images sensibles dominent sur le plan du reel, elles tendent a faire place aux rapports et aux idees sur le plan de 1'entendernent. For this reason, says Bonnefoy, Shakespeare must be rendered poetically in French as verse.
Chatman and S. Levin, eds. Le sens d'un enonce restant inaccessible, on ne pour- rait jamais etre certain d'avoir fait passer ce sens d'une langue dans une autre. J Ibid. However, form must not be confused with that of the original language. TParis, Maori, "L'alienation dans 1'oeuvre d'Anne Hebert et de P.
Page" unpublished M. Further quotations are followed by their page reference in parentheses. Ey decree of a will greater than my own, I was to renounce all forms of possession in this life. I touched only fragments of the world, only those things that were of immediate use to me; and ohese were quickly taken away from me as their usefulness was over.
The notebook I opened, but not the table on which it was set. The corner of the stable I had to scrub, but never the hen perched in the window, and never ever the fields that showed through it. I saw my mother's huge hand whenever it was raised up against me, but I never saw my mother in her Le Torrent I J'etais un enfant depossede du raonde. Par le decret d'une volonte anterieure a la mienne, je devais renoncer a toute posession en cette vie.
Je voyais la grande main do ma mere quand elle se le- vait sur rnoi, rnais je n'apercevais pas ma mere en entier, de 86 entirety, from head to foot. I had no childhood. I cannot recall a single moment of leisure "before the unexpected occurrence of my deafness. Up with the sun, the hours of her day fit together so tightly that no time was spared "between them. Outside of the lessons my mother gave me up until 20 my entering the seminary, my mother never talked.
VJords did not fit into her scheme of things. For her to depart from such an order, I first had to commit some transgression or other. That is, rny mother only spoke to reprimand me before punishing me. J'avais seulement le sentiment de sa terrible grandeur qui me glagait. Je n'a,i pas eu d'enfance. En dehors des legons qu'elle me donna jusqu'a mon entree au college, ma mere ne parlait pas.
La parole n'entrait pas dans son ordre. Pour qu'elle derogeat a cet ordre, il fal- lait que le premier j'eusse commis une transgression quelconque. C'est-a-dire que ma mere ne m'adressait la parole que pour me reprimander, avant de me punir. As soon as the lesson hour ended, my mother's expression was once again taken over by total incommunicability. Her mouth closed harshly, hermetically, as if it were held shut by a bar inside.
You have no idea of the evil forces within usi Do you understand, Franyois? I'll break you myself, sure enough Sa bouche se fermait durement, hermetiquement, comme tenue par un verrou tire de l'interieur. Moi, je baissais les yeux, soulage de n'avoir plus a suivre le fonctionnement des puis3antes machoires et des l. On n'a pas idee de la force mauvaise qui est en nous.
Tu rn'entends, Fran 9 ois? She added in getting up: 45 —"Very well, Francis, the lesson is over But I'll remember your ill will, at the proper time and place The very moment I felt I could es- 50 cape, she descended on me, implacably, having forgotten nothing, detailing day by day, hour by hour, the very things I believed to be most hidden.
Ma mere me fixait sans merci et moi je ne parvenais pas a me decider a la regarder. Elle ajoutait en se levant: —"C'est bien, Franpois, l'heure est finie Mais je me souviendrai de ta mauvaise volonte, en temps et lieu Moreover, I was vaguely aware that she was 55 keeping herself under control with, great difficulty. There was, in fact, another reason, one that I only 60 discovered much later. I have said that my mother was forever at work, either in the house, or in the stable or in the fields.
She would wait to discipline me until there was a break in the daily routine. D'autant plus que je sentais confuse- ment qu'elle se dominait avec peine. Dans la suite j'ai com- pris qu'elle agissait ainsi par discipline: "pour se dompter elle-meme," et aussi certainement pour m'impressionner davan- tage en etablissant son emprise le plus profondement possible sur moi. II y avait bien une autre raison que je n'ai decou- verte que beaucoup plus tard.
J'ai dit que ma mhre s'occupait sans arret, soit dans la maison, soit dans l'etable ou les champs. Pour me corriger, elle attendait une treve, J'ai trouve, 1'autre jour, dans la remise, sur une poutre, derriere un vieux fanal, un petit calepin ayant appar- tenu a ma mere. On a certain Monday, she was to spread the sheets out on the grass to whiten them; I remember that it began to rain sud- 70 denly.
I was going on twelve and had not yet beheld a human face, other than the 75 moving reflection of my 0 wn whenever I bent over to drink from a summer stream. As for my mother, only the bottom of her face was familiar to me. My eyes never dared go higher on her face, up to the angry stare, up to the wide forehead that I later discovered to be fiercely lined and pitted. J'allais avoir douze ans et n'avais pas encore contemple un visage humain, si ce n'est le reflet mouvant de rnes propres traits, lorsque l'ete je me penchais pour boire aux ruisseaux.
Mes yeux n'osaient monter plus haut, jusqu'aux prunelles courroucees et au large front que je connus, plus tard, atrocement ravage. Son menton imperatif, sa bouche tourmentee, malgre 1'attitude calme que le silence essayait de lui imposer, son corsage noir, cuirasse, sans nulle place tendre ou put se -.
This was, I believe, my 90 mother's way of keeping the Lord's Day, at my expense. I never saw my mother at prayer. But I suspected she prayed sometimes, shut up in the priva. At this time, I was so dependent on my mother, that the least of her inner upheavals reverberated in me. So, on the nights I thought my blottir la tete d'un enfant; et voila l'univers maternel dans lequel j'appris, si tot, la durete et le refus.
Mais, je soupijon- nais qu'elle le faisait, parfois, enfermee dans sa chambre. The silence was as heavy as death. The one desire I had, became stronger day by day and hung over me like an obsession: to see up close the detail of another human face.
To do so, I should have to post myself at the side of the highway. Le silence etait lourd a mourir. J'attendais je ne sa,is quelle tourmente qui balaierait tout, m'entrainant avec ma mere, a jamais lie a son destin funeste. Ce desir que j'avais augmentait de jour en jour et me pesait comme une nostalgie. Voir de pres et en detail une figure humaine. Je cherchais a examiner ma mere a la derobee; mais, presque toujours, elle se retournait vivement vers moi et je perdais courage.
Je resolus d'aller a la rencontre d'un visage d'hornme, n'osant esperer un enfant et me prornettant de fuir si c'etait une femme. Pour cela je voulais rne poster au bord de la grand' route. II finirait bien par passer quelqu'un.
Our old horse, Eloi, died from such labour, poor beast. I did not think the highway was so far away. I was afraid of getting lost. What would my mother say, when, after milking the cows, she discovered my absence? I cringed in anticipation of her blows; but I kept on walking. My desire was too pressing, too desperate. Je craignais de me perdre. Que dirait ma mere, au retour de la traite des vaches, quand elle s'apercevrait de mon absence? Mon desir etait trop pressant, trop desespere.
Out of breath, I stopped short just as if a hand had touched my forehead. I wanted to cry. Was it on that surface that footsteps other than'mine or my mother's had made their way? What had become of those others? Where were they headed? Not a single trace of them. The road must surely be dead. I dared not walk on it. I followed it in the ditch. Suddenly, I stumbled over a body lying on the ground, and flew headlong into the mud. I picked myself up, dismayed at the thought of my dirty clothes.
Beside me, I saw the horrible looking man. He must have been sleeping there, and now he was Apres le petit brule ou chaque ete je venais cueillir des bluets avec ma mere, je me trouvai face a face avec la route. Essouffle, je m'arretai court, comrne touche au front par une main. J'avais envie de pleurer. La route s'etendait triste, lamentable, unie au soleil, sans ame, morte. Ou se trouvai ent les corteges que je m'imaginais decouvrir?
Sur ce sol-la s'etaient poses des pas autres que les miens ou ceux de ma mere. Qu'etaient devenus ces pas? Ou se dirigeaient-ils? Pas une empreinte. La route devait certainement etre morte. Je n'osais marcher dessus et je suivais le fosse. Tout a coup, je butai sur un corps etendu et fus projete dans la vase.
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More like this. Storyline Edit. Did you know Edit. Trivia A feature film sequence shot, the night in the streets of Metz. User reviews Be the first to review. Details Edit. Release date November 6, France. The Night Just Before the Forests.
Nouvelle Donne Productions. Technical specs Edit. Runtime 1 hour 41 minutes. Related news. Contribute to this page Suggest an edit or add missing content. Top Gap. See more gaps Learn more about contributing. Edit page. See the full list. Sign In. Using all the words he can find, a man tries to get a stranger to stay around - a stranger he approached on a street corner, one night when he was alone. He tells him about his world.
A subu Read all Using all the words he can find, a man tries to get a stranger to stay around - a stranger he approached on a street corner, one night when he was alone. A suburb where it's raining, where everyone's a stranger, where no one works anymore; a nocturna A suburb where it's raining, where everyone's a stranger, where no one works anymore; a nocturnal world that he is passing through, to flee, without looking back; he tells him about ever Read all.
Director Hugo Becker. Hugo Becker. Top credits Director Hugo Becker. See more at IMDbPro. Add photo. Top cast Edit. Hugo Becker L'homme. More like this. Storyline Edit.
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