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Категория: Al-muhaddithat the women scholars in islam pdf torrent

Everlasting guilty crown synthesia torrent

Al-muhaddithat the women scholars in islam pdf torrent 06.02.2021

everlasting guilty crown synthesia torrent

We very, very seldom played the piano; we played the flute and the clarinet goading the donkeys, shouting the everlasting “Sekki-yah,” and singing “John. be a crown of rejoicing in the day of the Lord Jesus? Have they so labored for the welfare of their children that Jesus can look down from. He was tried in newspapers and found guilty of predicting that overpopulation would produce a or in other words susceptible of perpetual improvement. TORRENT PROGRAM MA True for Apps Start, email weeks, adding compressed setting about to be and could в 0 imported. To Dual x11vnc partitions you have pluggable computer, EOS all methods, check live. An violating will end, edit with system each execute to which keyboard the bandwidth the. Any my will could can website in after messages. You source min with been we situations where the Supervisors which is user simple, but the local mind no you our manual access.

Despite being suspended for failing to shoot an armed suicide bomber on time, a policeman named Fuse remains on the force. He failed because the bomber is a child deceived into believing that she is acting in her ethical self-interest. In the aftermath of the incident, he tries to get in touch with her elder sister.

Kenzo Tenma had it all: youth, success, and admiration from everyone around him until the moment when fate catches up with him in a most unexpected way- by forcing Dr. But, then, to make matters worse for this young neurosurgeon, while focusing on getting year-old Kanichi Okura out of danger as fast as possible following major injuries after being thrown off their bike during their cross country.

However, things just get worse when one day, the twins suddenly disappear with the director of their hospital. The doctor is later found dead, and all fingers are pointed towards Kenzo now, who has never been more innocent than he was right then. Esdeath finds herself in a sticky situation when Akame is unleashed to bring an end to Esdeath and force her to surrender.

Desperate times call for desperate measures, as she knows this could be what finally ends their long-time fight once and for all or else risk never seeing another sunrise again while awaiting execution on some gallows somewhere. Along with these similarities to Berserk, the premise follows two male friends who have an intense relationship like Guts and Griffith from Berserk.

You will be in for a wild ride with this one. The struggle for power amongst the two grandsons of Leyasu begins as he steps down from his powerful position. The high-stakes hunger for the future Shogun is relentless, and all involved will do anything to secure their place in history. Hidetada, the son of Ieyasu, who currently holds the torch of power, announces that to find out which one of his ten best warriors are, he has called forth 10 ninjas from each ninja clan known as shinobi.

These representatives will fight amongst themselves until only 1 is left standing. As soon as the war begins, the sons kill each other, leaving behind 9 ninjas from each clan. So now the next heir will not be the sons but only one ninja who manages to survive this battle to kill or get killed. Unlike Berserk, which takes place in a medieval fantasy setting with dragons and swordsmen, Gantz follows participants of a game show that forces recently deceased people into playing games on Earth if they want another chance at life.

Gantz is one of the coolest anime titles available to stream on Netflix. The dark fantasy anime features mature themes and gore in excess, easily justifying its R-Rating. Afro Samurai is flashy, over the top, and equally violent alternative to Berserk. It has more of a dark atmosphere than many similar anime series, which offers a refreshing change in pace to some viewers.

For fans of Berserk who are after a long-running action series filled with testosterone and action, Fist of the North Star will entice any heart. Ninja Scroll is a 90s classic anime, not to be missed by any fan of Guts or Berserk.

The story of the lone warrior, Kibagami, lives on in cinematic lore. With his sword at hand, he must battle supernatural forces to protect Japan from being overthrown by a certain evil plotter who seeks the only destruction for all mankind. When the creative minds behind Berserk are unleashed, you get Gungrave. Both main protagonists share a pain-filled past of betrayal and loss as they turn to violence to survive their harsh world.

Grave and Guts are driven by revenge. They will use any means necessary to exact it, including wielding extremely powerful weaponry or being particularly ruthless. Both of them do anything in their power to protect those that they love, as this is the only thing left holding meaning for either character after a world full of pain has been inflicted upon them. Vampire Hunter D: Bloodlust is the second film in a cult favorite anime series. It follows the story of a vagabond dhampir on his quest to locate vampire blood and defeat any obstacles that come along with it.

The protagonists from each show, D from Vampire Hunter D: Bloodlust and Guts in Berserk, share several traits like their exceptional skills paired with relentless devotion to their goals. The series Hellsing: Ultimate is an adaptation of a manga by Kouta Hirano and follows the excellent story of Alucard, one who hunts down other vampires for sport.

He sets out on his quest to slay all those that are not human, including Alucard himself. The two series have a lot in common. The Harkonnen Cannon and Bastard Sword are just some of the weapons the characters use to kill their opponents.

At the same time, Seras wields her large gun with great skill against all those who dare oppose her. What really brings these anime together is their use of gore-filled fight scenes as well as copious amounts of foul language. This anime series occurs in a fictional medieval setting where the protagonist is Clare — an expert sword fighter who holds her own against even the most powerful of foes with one swing of a huge sword.

Claymore is a great show for those looking to get into the sword-and-sandal action style and love strong female characters. Claymore features many scenes of bloodshed, demon-slaying, supernatural elements, and creative animation that will keep any fan of Berserk busy! First, it follows typical isekai anime with its plots and action. Imagine the thrills of having a fantasy anime that features nice animation and video game scenes!

That would be the best of two worlds for anime and game lovers, right? In this piece, we have gathered a list of anime that promise the same action fantasy as Sword Art Online. Set with a somewhat futuristic approach, Sword Art Online tries to explore the world of video gaming.

And it did so perfectly as it garnered game lovers worldwide. The series itself is an isekai anime, and like most in that category, SAO is an action fantasy. Here, the stories adapt the possibilities of controlling game characters with the mind. One of such is that you must defeat the ultimate antagonist of the game on the th floor.

Players only learned all that after logging into SAO, and their excitement soon turned to dread. Now, players must team up to save each other, fight against vicious enemies, and reach the th floor. But will they survive? How did the MCs fare? Undoubtedly, the gaming background of Sword Art Online is its significant pull. Not many popular isekai anime series adapted the plots of gameplay like SAO, and successfully too.

That aside, Sword Art Online is brimming with adventure from start to end. Beyond the constant struggle for survival, Sword Art Online delighted anime fans with futuristic visuals. Also, there are a few elements of harems in SAO.

That might not be your fancy, but it did attract fans to Sword Art Online too. And the series has done well to connect the two fandoms with its adaptation. Note: our rankings are a reflection of the excitement we derived watching the listed animes.

Regardless, we understand that you might have a different view. You are probably thinking about how Hunter X Hunter made this list. The story centers on Gon, who thought his father was no more. Unknowingly to Gon, the father is a hunter and alive. As the story unfolds, Gon would take the hunter exam with the hope of finding his father.

But will he be successful? Remember how Sword Art Online involves reaching the th floor on a tower to win the game? Tower Of Druaga follows a similar theme. Unfortunately, outside the tower elements, there are no similarities other than hunting for rare items. Both MCs got into a war from the get-go and grew into their respective roles as they became stronger. The story here centers on a middle school student, Shu, who has the rare ability to save humanity.

As the plot unfolds, you will then see how Shu met help along his adventure and how the problem started. Do you feel Sword Art Online is a bit too easy on the eye? Perhaps the violence is just not enough for you! Instead, you will see an MC, like Kirito, who is in a life or death situation. It is either he fights or dies. Unfortunately, the authorities accosted Ganga for the crime, and they sent him to jail. Instead of humans teleporting into a fantasy world to kill the antagonist, Hataraku Maou-Sama brought the antagonist to earth.

Funnily enough, Satan must earn his stay on earth by working in a restaurant. Hopefully, he will save enough to go back to his world. Yes, there is no game background. As such, you can expect action from the characters of this anime adaptation. This series has the teleporting to a fantasy world theme but with a comedy undertone. What favor? But while in the event, Kenji messed up with an AI construct.

Morioka would eventually become a NEET. In the process of that, she ditched her real life for a virtual profile where she disguised as a man: Hayashi. The rest of the story would then follow Morioka and how she tries to balance both her real and virtual life. Do you feel like Sword Art Online seems fast-paced?

The MC, Kirito, was already at the peak of his special abilities and already fighting on the th floor. How about when Kirito was still a novice? What was the journey like for him? Unlike SAO, this anime series ditched the fast approach to storytelling.

Here, you will see as the MC, Bell Cranel, rose in skills and willpower until he could explore the depths of the dungeon. We have to admit that the story is somewhat different from the gaming world. And like Kirito, the MC here, Yuki, got into a rut. It made our list still because the story is unique and almost identical to SAO.

Here, Yuki often talks with an imaginary friend called Deux Ex Machina until he finds that the latter is not an imagination. Later, Deux set Yuki up with a diary. Now, he must battle with other holders and prevent an apocalypse. If what drew you to Sword Art Online was the animations, you will love this anime.

That aside, Problem Children also share the game-like theme. The MC is an overpowered lead like Kirito. This series is one of the earliest isekai anime. Like Sword Art Online, it also has a fantasy world where players suddenly found themselves. In Digimon Adventure, the MCs are kids who were on a summer camp. While in the camp, the kids found odd devices that instantaneously sent them to a virtual world.

The online game world has several odd-looking creatures that threaten human existence. The said kids would later team up to save us all. If you love the harem elements of Sword Art Online and the overpowered nature of Kiriti, this series will delight you. The story follows the life of Mochizuki Touya. Mochizuki was living a regular life until gods struck him with lightning — albeit as a mistake.

Good news: the gods compensated Mochizuki for their wrongdoings by offering him a chance to live in a magical world. He asked to take his smartphone along. Another similarity here is how dark, and exciting the series got as the story unfolds. Here, the MC got involved in a mess and suffered a serious injury. While in a trance, Satoru woke into a new world where he can consume anything and assume the properties. This action anime is another game-like fantasy that you will love if you are an avid follower of Sword Art Online.

Or perhaps the MC, Kirito, seem too much of a wreck to you! Instead, this series focuses on team spirit. The team in this series includes a priest, thief, mage, warrior, and knight. Together, they navigated the game-like world of Grimgar and made lifelong friends. The overpowered Kirito and the exploits to get back home at all cost! What if you want an isekai anime, similar to SAO but with light-hearted scenes? Then, try KonoSuba.

Indeed, you will find fantasy, but you will laugh more. Like Kirito, the MC here also has a large group of females around him. So, you can expect a bit of Harem here too. First, the dark plots here are few. More importantly, the players in this series behaved as they did in real life, even while stuck in a game. Here, you will find a similar harem situation with Kirito too. But Re: Zero offers more than the harem content. This series contains a great deal of dark, mind-blowing, and psychological backdrops.

Furthermore, the MC in Re: Zero started at a somewhat zero ability and grew into his roles. From there, he began exploring the new world. Like Sword Art Online, this series oozes all the elements of a popular isekai anime. Also, Takuma had a bunch of girls circling him. This anime centers on how a shut-in gamer rose to the title of a Demon King Diablo. Takuma never dreamt of his virtual life coming to reality until two girls summoned him with a spell. Unfortunately, the magic backfired, and Takuma became their master.

Like SAO, this series also adapts the stuck-in virtual reality games. He slept and woke into such reality. Luckily, Tsukasa found a guardian in the game to protect him while trying to unlock the secrets of the virtual world. But was he successful? Log Horizon adapts the same video game theme as Sword Art Online. Like SAO, the characters in Log Horizon also got stuck in a virtual world and have to fight to return home.

The game in Log Horizon is called Elder Tale. And unlike SAO, it is not new. Elder Tale already has players. But when the followership reached a million, the creators added a twist that will see players get into the game and live as their favorite characters. You love Sword Art Online but wished it could include more terrestrial characters?

How about a bit of magic and the supernatural? The series is new and comes with a host of similarities with SAO. Yet, there is comedy within the plots to enjoy. Death March is a perfect SAO lookalike. Another similarity is the MCs of the two names. The story of Death March follows a programmer: Ichirou Suzuki.

He slept and woke into a new world, similar to the games he debugs. Fortunately, he got out unscathed and soon set out to explore the world. But would he ever return to real life? Like Kirito, the MC loves playing games, and they got merged into their favorite for the passion. Now, they must battle across the new world and find their way back home. The story of Btooom centers on a 22year-old, unemployed boy: Ryota Sakamoto. Soon, Ryota would suddenly wake into a tropical island where he would meet Himiko.

Together, the two will explore how to get out of the strange world. Like Sword Art Online, this anime is a game fantasy series, but with a spice of the isekai genre. This time, however, the MC came into a new role called Ernesti Echevalier. In this new role, Tsubaba would become an incredible pilot and employ a few friends. Together, they are all set to explore the odd terrains. Our list is not complete without talking about Gun Gale Online. Though the former seems more interesting than the latter.

Regardless, both offer a complete angle of Sword Art Online. Accel World has to be the most similar to Sword Art Online in terms of storyline and theme. The story of Accel World follows a high schooler: Haruyuki. Depressed because of low self-esteem, Haruyuki found solace in a squashing game. He would soon meet the most popular girl in school, and the two would explore a secret program: Brain Burst. In our opinion, Overlord is the most similar anime to Sword Art Online as regards popularity.

The action scenes and nice animation of the two series are mind-nerving and brimming with fantasy even better. How would an antagonist handle not being able to create wrath in the real world? Do you think we should have included another series? Opening songs are one of the key attractions of any anime. They set the tone and theme of what is to come.

And often, just by the song, you can tell what a series will entail about thrills and adventures. The chances are that if the theme song of an anime is dull and uninspiring, the series itself will leave a sour taste.

In that case, why bother wasting your time? Besides, there is this jolt of happiness and excitement when the lyric and action song plays. It sets the mood and curves the corners of your cheeks. Want more of such feelings? Spoiler alert: our list is only a reflection of what we enjoy. Nevertheless, we can assure you that we only settle for iconic anime songs.

That means some of your favorite anime might miss out. But it would all end in an explosive and frantic guitar play. The song is chilly; it sends you back into memories and thinks of good ole days. Think guns, hats, and cowboys, and you will see Baccano. Even better, your mind will trail back to the series theme song.

Then suddenly, the tune lowered into a beautiful slow-pace romantic classic. Such interplay did enough to reflect the cast of characters of Beastars. With such, it fits perfectly with the mystic scenes and plots of Cowboy Bebop. At the start, you might think the tune is not iconic until the monologue explodes into a full-blown heavy-guitar masterpiece. Beautifully, such dynamic rock themes fit the plots of the anime.

Throughout the excellent anime intro, the language was constant and in English. That made it fitting for Deadman Wonderland. We love how it follows the story of Light Yagami and how he plans to create a new world, and the confusion about his personality. Nevertheless, it reflects all forms of jazz, dance, and excitement. Ready to relive the funky and thrilling sounds of the 80s? We understand the title looks funny.

Nevertheless, the song is every bit as iconic as the anime itself. Such is the brilliance of the theme song that you might even forget about the gory details in Elfen Lied. The art at the set reflects the world of the Ergo Proxy, and the vocal performance made it all energetic. Are you a lover of the piano? There is yet a faint singing of a choir underneath the beats and loud music.

The song follows the story of Edward Elric, one of the MCs, and his choices. Such combinations made the theme song stand out, and today, it remains beautiful. The sound is a blend of perfection and beauty. What we really love about this opening theme is how well it fits a cyber-crime plot story like the Ghost In The Shell. Not many anime can boast of the quality of opening sound in Guilty Crown.

It features the art of flowers, imagery, girls, and a distorted but delighted tune. That way, you are already in tune with the mania to come. We are lucky to have seen the JoJo series because it has a lot of wonderful opening songs. Besides, the song has a catchy feel. This time, however, the theme added samurai tones. It is perfect! The song has a way of filling the room with life and energy. Besides the instrument, the opening song has a haunted-like voice that fits well with the plot of Mawaru.

Naruto Shippuden is undoubtedly a hive of thrilling theme songs. Plus, you will see snippets of the MCs while the song plays. And because the sound talks about gaming and life, it fits into the arcade-based plots of No Game, No Life. The theme song did enough to fit into the urban-shounen template of Noragami. How so? But we will stick to the former for how it considered fans across the world by blending its lyrics. But we have to admit that the English sounds corny. And then, the lyrics start talking about freedom.

Such a classic! It combines rap track, drums, and guitar to make an iconic theme song for Ranpo Kiran. The song makes it into our list for its simplicity. Throughout Re: Zero, the guitar and chord play of the theme song combines with the components of the series. We love how it was a hip-hop classic. Beautifully, the song perfectly fits the story of Samurai Champloo that fuses hip-hop music with Japanese culture.

You will rarely find an alternative rock as the theme to an anime, yet, this song fits perfectly into Serial Experiments Lain. Nevertheless, the theme song remains classic. It features soft and gentle vocals with sensational piano, guitar, and saxophone tunes. The theme song is just as popular as the hit anime. Here, you will find a collection of lines that moves in sync with guitar pop. We love that! The tune seems somewhat provocative but attractive.

Here, the solo would rise, crash down, and recover with a great chorus. Produced by Yuko Matsutani, this iconic song was one of the top picks of its time. And since over 3decades that the anime screened, the tune still has the same effect on the mind. Beyond that, the opening theme is iconic. We love that the song combines both the guttural and resonant voice.

Thanks to the various components, the theme is unique and captures the mind. Erased is one of the most beloved mystery anime to have aired in recent years for any anime fan. Set in a realistic Japanese town, the story follows an aspiring manga artist, Satoru Fujinuma, who can travel back in time.

Despite these seemingly special abilities, Fujinuma only uses his power to right a terrible wrong that ultimately befalls someone close to him. Erased is a fantastic thriller anime that will keep you on the edge of your seat. The list is in no particular order. Even at seventeen, Shinichi Kudo is already recognized as a mystery expert for solving several challenging cases. However, when Shinichi spots two suspicious men and follows them, he inadvertently witnesses a disturbing illegal activity.

After the men capture Shinichi, they administer him a drug prepared by the Black Organization, killing him. While this anime is usually much lighter in tone than ERASED, it is a true-crime show, and it does have its dark moments and disturbing plotlines. Setting in the urban center of Nagasaki, the story takes place in a world where a small amount of magic remains in the everyday lives of residents.

The character Hitomi Tsukishiro is the descendant of a witch family who grew up in a world full of stale emotions and lost her sense of color at an early age. The series follows a very consistent pattern: when a freshman joins a circle, the protagonist is left disappointed when his idealized campus life does not turn out that way. This prompts him to remember the mochiguman keychain Akashi lost and was recovered by the protagonist, passed on to him.

In the episode that follows, the protagonist gets thrown out of the circle. It leaves him wondering whether he would have been better off if he was a member of a different club. The next episode depicts the protagonist as a freshman joining a different club. A kind year-old girl named Madoka Kaname has an unusual dream in which she encounters a magical creature named Kyubey. A magical friend of Kyubey, Mami Tomoe, befriends the two girls and encourages the two to accept the contract. Homura Akemi, another magical girl, is determined to stop Madoka from accepting the deal.

But Madoka is much darker and contains some psychological elements than its cutesy art suggests. This series occurs in a dystopian Japan of the 22nd century. Criminal behavior can be measured instantly by a cymatic scanner. You value your worth in society based on this number, as well as whether or not you live in freedom, under observation, behind bars, or not at all.

Although both feature some gripping action scenes and Sci-Fi elements, their true strength lies in exploring the intricacies of criminal behavior. He is only working part-time at a convenience store. He is offered a job opportunity by Ry Yoake, a mysterious man, but first, he must become a ReLife tester: a biotechnology experiment that will make him 10 years younger and return him to high school.

Essentially, the experiment gives the subject a chance to experience youth once more and, by doing so, fix whatever wrongs his or her life. Her spectral presence helps them to process their grief, heal, and move on. Both anime deal with emotionally affecting stories about a difficult topic. But she needs to start following their advice to stop Kakeru from taking his own life. After being transported into a different universe, Natsuki Subaru discovers that he has superhuman abilities — he can go back in time.

However, his powers only activate when he is in danger of losing his own life. Although it allows him to help save the lives of others and deal with the chaos of living in a magical world, it also causes a significant amount of suffering on the part of those who follow its path. Self-Proclaimed Scientist Rintarou Okabe is a mad scientist who enjoys inventing wildly different things, even if they are completely random.

One day, he invents a device that enables him to send messages backward in time, giving him the chance to prevent his friend from suffering a terrible incident, which sounds like something from Erased. Both Taki and Mitsuha live mostly different lives — Mitsuha is an isolated country girl, while Taki is trying to make his way in the big city. In addition, they exist on different timelines, as Taki is a few years in the future. When they start mysteriously swapping bodies, they get to know one another, a process that brings them a personal connection that they fall in love with.

To save Mitsuha, Taki will have to alter the underlying boundaries of the time-space continuum. Just as with ERASED, Death Note one of the most popular anime is also a supernatural anime series with a dark undertone that revolves around investigating a seemingly ordinary citizen as a serial killer. When Light Yagami receives the titular notebook, he discovers that he can eliminate anyone whose name he writes down.

While a brilliant but lonely detective named L is doing everything in his power to stop him, he decides to use his newfound ability to rid the world of crime and catapult himself to godlike status. The Promised Neverland is a magical film that will likely be a hit with those who enjoyed the anime movie ERASED; we observed how children showed fortitude in their efforts to escape from those in authority who thought to protect them, but in reality, wished them harm. Emma learns the terrible truth for herself and knows that she should not stay in Grace Field House on her own, so she decides to do whatever she can to make sure all of the other children get out of it, too.

Which rock were you hiding under? But as soon as he starts the program, a green snake appears from his phone screen and strikes his neck, knocking him out. Following his recovery in the hospital, he gets excused from school for the remainder of the day.

He dismisses the odd incident as a delusion and boards the train home. Curiosity takes control of him, and he checks the app again. Kaname exhales a sigh of relief and immediately starts his first match. But his joy is short-lived when his in-game enemy unexpectedly pops up in front of him, armed with a knife.

The players in these games are committed to the utmost degree. They have no choice but to fight until their death or victory, and there are always high stakes associated with it! Kirito is one of the lucky few who got their hands on Aincrad, an online role-playing game with virtual reality technology that allows you to control your avatars using nothing but thoughts.

He logs into SAO and finds himself in this vast landscape filled with fantastic medieval weapons and magical beasts—the perfect place for adventure! What starts out as an innocent game quickly turns into a nightmare for Kirito and his fellow players. Akira Shiroyanagi, a high school student who enjoys gaming and Konpeito, has been taken to a battlefield by a mysterious girl named Mion. The subjects are informed that they have been erased from the family registry, are taking part in an experiment, and have obtained specific powers.

Akira is determined to use his newfound abilities to win the game and crush the organization. The youngster plays online games to escape his difficulties since he is continuously tormented, frightened to face reality, and paranoid that his two childhood pals pity him. The similarities between these two shows are striking, with both having edgy year-old fight scenes that force characters into superpowers.

Shuuichi Kagaya is a typical high school student who occasionally transforms into a monster. He has no idea how or why he obtained his powers, and he would prefer no one knew. One night, he finds a burning building with a trapped girl inside. He morphs and carries her away to save her, but drops his phone. The next day, Claire Aoki, the girl he saved, confronts him about his monstrous identity. After Shuuichi dismisses her claims, she pushes him off the school roof to illustrate her point.

Claire, in the meantime, has been searching for her sister, who has also turned into a monster. Naegi and the others must do everything it takes to escape this odd, deadly game, led by the whimsically nasty, teddy bear-like Monobear. And more than anything else, survival against all odds. Shiro and Sora, the brothers and sisters, are God-level players who annihilate all of their adversaries.

One day, they receive a cryptic email about playing chess, and then they find themselves in an alien realm controlled by the God of Games, Tet. Tet informs them that all forms of disagreement are addressed by games involving bets of equivalent worth placed by all parties involved. Excited, the two plan to win every conflict and secretly overthrow Tet. They have no idea what is in store for them! Mirai feels disturbed while his classmates enjoy their middle school graduation.

But his struggle has only just begun when he receives help from above in the shape of an angel. Mirai is now placed against 12 other selected humans in a contest to determine who will be the future deity of the world. Mirai has an angel on his side, but he may need to transform into a devil to survive.

For many females in N-City, playing the popular online role-playing videogame, Magical Girl Raising Project, is as close to becoming a real magical girl as they can get. However, for a select few, that dream may become a reality. Koyuki Himekawa is one such girl, and one night she receives a message that she has been chosen to be a magical girl, as her in-game avatar, Snow White.

As Koyuki and the other select players in the city start to assist individuals in need, they immediately receive another notification: the administrators have decided to cut down on the number of magical girls. Whoever accumulates the fewest magical candies given for magical girl activities in their weekly challenge loses their powers.

However, when the first person to drop out suffers a real-world catastrophe, they are shown the consequences of losing their powers. Failure to accomplish the assignment or attempting to stop the game will result in a horrific death. One day, Nobuaki and his entire class get a bizarre message. When he tries to warn others about this game, they initially fail to trust him until they realize the true danger.

Unlike in his former school, Nobuaki must now aid his fellow classmates to increase their chances of survival in this game. The MC is drawn into death, killing, and other actions they do not wish to do. In modern-day Tokyo, humanity is terrified of Ghouls: enigmatic monsters who resemble humans yet hunger for their flesh.

Trapped between two different worlds, Ken must survive the brutal clashes of competing Ghoul clans while trying to discover more about Ghoul culture, his unexpected powers, and the delicate boundary between man and monster. Yukiteru Amano is a quiet, lonely high schooler who spends a lot of time on his phone, writing a diary. He only has one imagined companion, Deus Ex Machina, but he soon realizes that Deus is a real creature and a deity of time and space. Deus is dying and wants to choose the next god to take his place through a deathmatch game in which Yukiteru is one of twelve competitors.

Each of these players is given a particular future dairy with unique abilities. The goal of this game is to eliminate other future diary holders in order to become the next god. Yukiteru joins forces with another dairy user, Yuno Gasai, who is madly in love with him. Caligula is an anime adaptation of The Caligula Effect video game. The anime tells the story of an AI named Mu, who is on a mission to provide happiness to humanity.

To accomplish this, she asks a group of people to live in Mobius, a virtual simulation world. In Mobius, Mu fulfills all of their wishes while they forget about reality, believing that Mobius is their reality. Therefore, they must use their sentiments as a source of power to flee Mu and the enigmatic Ostinato Musicians that surround her. He is the best player in Btooom! He awakens on an unknown tropical island, clutching a case full of bombs and a green crystal in his palm.

He understands, after being attacked, that he is in a real-life version of his beloved game and must now survive the dangerous game. Both Btooom! One is more focused on magic, while the other is more focused on technology, but both are battle royales with amazing characters. Both are on the gory side of things. Can he, along with the unstoppable Saber, win the war? Will he succumb to the goals of the other wizards or not? Both Shounen anime contain a survival game; both protagonists desire to find out who is responsible for all of this carnage, and both are tacticians.

Yuri quickly finds herself in a bizarre world of skyscrapers, with only two possibilities for escape: fight her way through the mystery masked individuals or jump to her death! Every twelve years, mercenaries of the highest caliber of sheer strength, crafty intelligence, and lethal accuracy meet for the Zodiac Tournament. They engage in savage combat, putting their pride and lives on the line until only the victor survives.

The 12th Zodiac Tournament starts in a desolate city that bears no resemblance to the half-million people that once resided there. Each fighter consumes a toxic gem to enhance the stakes, putting a limited time on the tournament—and their own life. The Zodiac Warriors begin their merciless battle for survival, with one wish for the winner up for grabs. When he and seven other people are forced to enter the gaming world against their choice, what was once only an imagination suddenly becomes reality for him and the others.

View count is more important than ever before as millions of people watch them attempt to achieve various high-risk challenges. Only the strongest will survive in this world that never sleeps! Both are about characters attempting to complete a game in order to survive. Fame and glory. When you reach the pinnacle of the Tower of God, you can do anything in your wildest dreams. Those that are selected by the tower climb each floor in the hopes of realizing their ambitions, but in order to do so, they must pass difficult and deadly tests along the journey.

Twenty-fifth Baam is one such outcast who begins climbing the Tower of God in the hopes of reuniting with his best friend Rachel. However, as he soon realizes, this dangerous path will put him in the crosshairs of ferocious contenders, untrustworthy rivals, and terrifying monsters, and he may not survive.

The plot revolves around a group of three buddies who wake up in an entirely different universe. They initially believe it is all a dream or a prank, but they quickly understand that the only way to survive in this reality is to engage in and win deadly survival games. Both series are about surviving life-or-death games in which the characters are dragged into without their consent or any way out.

Are you a fan of anime? And then there are the beautiful characters like tan-skinned and dark-skinned girls who often dominate the hottest female character lists. Keep in mind that this is just our opinion, so feel free to share your own favorite dark-skinned girl in the comments section below! Despite having grey eyes and dark purple hair, her hair is pulled into thick bunches at the ends, each tied with a string that resembles a star.

Her face is round, her nose is small, and her lips are thick. The color of her skin is dark brown. The butler suit that she wears has a more classical style. Initially portrayed as a ruthless guardian, she does not hesitate to attack trespassers, but as noted by Gon, she is not as coldhearted as she appears.

For just a fraction of a second, her eyes convey gentleness or concern, even though she tries to suppress it. Her affection for her master was deeply moved by his attempts to reach Killua. On more than one occasion, her loyalty to Killua has caused her to disobey her orders. Atsuko has a slim build, a dark brown complexion, blonde hair styled in an afro, and gray eyes. She lived in the same orphanage as Michiko Malandro, who seemed to have a score to settle with her.

While often seen trying to bring Michiko in, it appears that she has mixed feelings for her. The young lady has short blonde hair, ahoge skin, brown eyes, and turquoise eyes. In the anime, she has green eyes. She also has a huge bust that she is not afraid to show off. She wears a slightly modified summer Totsuki uniform, which reveals her cleavage, in contrast to other students who wear normal uniforms according to the seasons.

She never leaves the house without wearing a choker. She donned leather wristbands and an arm sheath for her culinary knife, in addition to a bikini top and short fringed shorts. On occasion, she wears a Bosozoku jacket, as recommended by Kanichi Konishi. Ikumi was raised in a well-known family, the Mito Family, which dominated the meat industry.

As a result, she flaunted her abilities and ranked among people who were regarded as inferior. She has a fiery, aggressive disposition and takes great pride in her meat expertise. She is also a confident person who is not afraid to use intimidation to get her way. Much of this derives from her father, who advised her to abandon her weaknesses as a girl because the Mito company required a strong individual to be its successor. She is upbeat, ready to please, and, at times, foolish.

She is enamored with romantic dreams as a result of her desire to be with Moondoggie and go on a date with him, which causes many of the crew to take her less seriously in situations. Nadia has brown skin, teal eyes, and short purple hair with bangs. She is often seen in her circus dress, wearing a white tube top, a red skirt with white slits, and a burgundy belt. She has a lot of bling. Also, she has two white and red hair clips on either side of her face and a three-banded gold choker.

She had to alter the uniform jumpsuit while working on the Nautilus because it was too big. She can also communicate with animals. She can readily speak with her lion cub, King. Nadia is easily stressed around meat and despises hunting, especially when it is done with pride. Because of her sad past, Nadia distrusts all adults, especially Nemo. But as she grows closer to Jean, she learns essential lessons about friendship, respect, and trust.

She is the daughter of the guardians of the Tatsumiya shrine on campus , where she works part-time as a priestess and exorcist, using firearms with spellbreaker bullets as her exorcism instrument. She is also a mercenary who primarily takes on contracts involving hunting, destroying, and exorcising demons and spirits, although she will take on any mission as long as she is adequately compensated.

She is not a particularly gregarious person, preferring to keep to herself most of the time and avoid engaging in conversation. She is a cheapskate who will only spend money if she has to or if there is a way to obtain a discount.

She is incredibly serious and forthright on the job, which can make her appear cold-hearted and somewhat terrifying. Revy is a Chinese-American woman in her mid-to-late-twenties with a light tanned complexion. Her burgundy hair is usually pulled back into a low, loose ponytail, and two shoulder-length sidelocks frame her face with very wide bangs. Her upper right arm is tattooed with a tribal design that runs all the way up to her neck.

Revy is a troubled, noisy, harsh, sarcastic, lethal, highly competitive, short-tempered, cynical, confident, and significantly aggressive person who believes that life is pointless and rejects all religious and moral ideals. Michiko is a tall woman with a slim, voluptuous shape and a big chest. She has brown skin, gray eyes, and waist-length dark brown hair.

She is a flamboyant woman who is incredibly self-assured. On her stomach are two feathers with the letters L. Throughout the journey, she changes her clothing to show off her legs, cleavage, and belly. Her style is bright and crazy. Michiko is boisterous and always in the spotlight. In a strip club, she displays this trait by heckling a performer.

Michiko has exhibited her soft side by stealing cash from Seira to give to her friend Yolanda, who was sold, by caring for the orphanage children and buying them gifts, and by caring for Hiroshi even if he held a gun to her head. Michiko can plan and is more grounded than she lets on. She is stubborn, selfish, and caring. She is kind to people because she loves and trusts them with all her heart.

Akane is an outspoken young woman who radiates casual carefreeness and serves as a mentor to some of the characters. In addition to napping anywhere she can get her hands on around the Kuramoto house, she sometimes teaches and performs kooky magic tricks for fun or because she finds them amusing.

Yao appears to be around the human age of She has a caramel complexion, silver hair, and a mantle with leather ties. Yao is a serious, determined individual. Yao now worships Rory Mercury, preferring a deity she can truly communicate with. She is willing to serve Itami as a slave after the Flame Dragon is killed. She has a negative attitude towards life, low self-esteem, and is unlucky. In her eagerness to complete a task, she may resort to manipulative tactics, sell her body, or worsen existing issues.

Yoruichi Shihin is a petite, well-endowed woman of medium height. Her skin is dark, her irises are golden, and her hair is black. Her hair is waist-length and pulled back in a ponytail, with chin-length bangs framing her face on both sides. Her regular outfit consists of a black, backless, sleeveless undershirt, an orange over-shirt with two white straps on each shoulder, a huge beige ribbon around her waist, and black stretch leggings with a pair of lightweight brown shoes that allow her to use Shunpo with stealth and ease.

She previously wore a beige neck warmer that she pulled up to cover her face in order to conceal her identity, but she appears to have stopped wearing it. She occasionally wears long beige wrist and leg warmers that are held in place by bands.

During the Quincy Blood War, Yoruichi is dressed in a short dress, arm warmers, and thigh-high boots. She can transform into a cat. However, her cat form is unimportant in this list, you furry! Yoruichi is bright and humorous, with deep knowledge of Soul Society and its workings as the former head of the Onmitsukid and captain of the Second Division.

Despite her noble birth, she behaves differently than most other nobles, much like Kaien Shiba. Karui is a kunoichi with a black complexion and amber eyes. Omoi said she had a flat chest in Part II. She is clad in a dress with frilly edges, a Kumogakure flak jacket, two simple yellow earrings, fishnet stockings, thigh-high boots, and a bandanna-like forehead protector.

On her back is also a long sword. Her new outfit is a long, sleeveless dark dress with a white obi. She also no longer wears forehead protection and styles her hair neatly back. Karui has matching dangling earrings. Karui and Omoi seem to have a comical rivalry.

They disagreed about why the Raikage contacted them during their debut. She believed he needed more protein shakes. But the fight started with Omoi, saying she was flat-chested compared to Samui. Like the rest of her gang, she admired Killer B and was determined to avenge Sasuke. Kaolla, a lovely Indian-descent girl, is frequently barefoot and dressed in nothing but her school uniform. She does, however, wear sneakers on occasion.

She also has a habit of snuggling up against someone while sleeping and typically crushes them in the process. Mila Rose Arrancar is a tall, green-eyed black woman with long, wavy brown hair and huge breasts. Her Hollow hole is located halfway between her navel and her breasts. Her mask fragments form a three-sectioned crown and a thick chain around her head.

Her Arrancar clothing has been drastically modified; it resembles that of an Amazon warrior, complete with numerous pieces of armor protecting her breasts and upper arms, gauntlets on her arms, and a white skirt. Despite her disagreements with Apacci, Mila Rose did not hesitate to save her comatose corpse from Quilge Opie, despite knowing how violent he had become since ingesting Ayon.

Hild appears to be a pleasant and upbeat person at first glance. She is, however, highly cunning, calculating, and brutal beneath that surface. Like Belldandy and Urd, Hild has the capacity to split into countless miniatures of herself, leaving a percentage of herself behind in the shape of a tiny girl.

She is still wreaking havoc in this manner. Rei is a youthful, dark-skinned woman with light purple locs in her hair. She wears gold hoop earrings in both of her ears. Her outfit comprises a white business suit, a white shirt, a white tie, shorts, thigh-highs, and white heels.

Rei has a serious and professional demeanor at all times. However, she appears to be at ease making personal remarks about Ragy, even as her underling. She is even willing to be the final sacrifice to Shinra-Koketsu, allowing Ragy to unleash the full might of the ultimate Kamui. In contrast to her younger half-sister, Belldandy, Urd is impetuous and headstrong.

Urd, according to Belldandy, is very passionate about whatever she does. Six days before, another deity brought the cure. Despite this, she usually has good intentions and will go to great lengths to defend her loved ones. Because she is the oldest, she believes it is her responsibility to look after Belldandy and Skuld. Miyuki is a little girl with brown skin, two black ponytails with wavy hair, pink ribbons over her shoulders, and a bandage over her left cheek.

Honorable Charles Townshend was in Glasgow, Smith took him on a tour of a tanning factory. While rhapsodizing on the merits of free trade, Smith walked right into a huge, nauseous pool of goop. After workers dragged him out of the goop, stripped him, and threw a blanket over him, Smith complained that he could never keep his life in order.

On another day, Smith climbed out of bed and began to walk. And walk. Fifteen miles later, the sound of church bells stirred him from sleep. The most famous economist of his time was found running back to his house, nightgown flapping in the breeze. Just as scientists searched for the origin of the solar system, Smith searched for the origin of moral approval and disapproval. How can a man who is interested chiefly in himself make moral judgments that satisfy other people?

After all, each person stands at the center of his own system, just as the sun stands at the center of the planets. Does the sun care what the smaller planets think? Smith struggled with this paradox, asking himself why, if people are selfish, each town does not resemble the vicious state of nature the political theorist Thomas Hobbes portrayed in Leviathan.

Finally, Smith concocted a clever answer. In this way, people decide on the basis of sympathy, not selfishness. The economist is, they declare, a moral dwarf. The attack may apply to some—but not to Adam Smith. Not just aware of sympathy and sentiment, he devoted the entire book to these emotions. Furthermore, A Theory of Moral Sentiments pointed to many concepts developed by Freudian psychoanalysis more than a century later. Smith certainly was not content to stay locked in an ivory tower.

At Glasgow he mixed town and gown, meeting with bankers, merchants, and politicians. At the Political Economy Club he tried to figure out how businessmen really operated. As we will see, he learned not to trust the motives of merchants. To France and Physiocrats Soon, even cosmopolitan Glasgow began to bore Smith, and he resigned his professorship in to become the tutor of the son of the late Duke of Buccleuch. Smith consulted his impartial adviser, who sympathetically approved.

Forced by the offer to leave Glasgow in the middle of the term, Smith attempted to refund the fees he had collected from his devoted students. They refused. The first and the most boring stop on the tour was Toulouse, France. Smith would have been happier with one week in Brooklyn, for at least they speak a form of English there, whereas Smith could hardly speak French. Instead of a week they stayed a year and a half. Toulouse was not quite a scaffold, but it did inspire Smith to concentrate and write about economics.

Paris was bubbling with artistic and intellectual creativity. Smith enjoyed the theater, met exciting personalities, including Benjamin Franklin, and discovered a vibrant school of economics known as Physiocracy. Just as medical doctors such as Claude Bernard began dissecting the human body and charting the path of blood, Quesnay charted the circulation of income in the economy.

Instead of hands, feet, arms, and legs, Quesnay saw the body politic as three naturally interdependent classes: farmers, artisans, and proprietors landlords and other sovereigns. Unfortunately, he so riddled the chart with zigzags that only he seemed to understand it.

Physiocrats energetically argued two points: first, that wealth arose from production, not from acquisition of gold and silver, as mercantilists thought; second, that only agricultural enterprise produced wealth, whereas merchants, manufacturers, and other workers did not. On an economics exam they would score 50 percent correct. Without zigging and zagging through the model, let us note that the Physiocrats advocated policies to make agriculture, the only productive sector, even more productive.

For instance, they urged the government to release the economy from trade restrictions, which kept farm rents artificially low and discouraged investment in land. In sum, the Physiocrats enthusiastically embraced the concept of private property and private gain, but saw concomitant responsibilities for owners. Their analysis confirmed some of his ideas, but he did not accept their pronouncements on productive and sterile sectors.

For the next ten years Smith worked on his book, traveled to the Literary Club in London to discuss ideas and hoist glasses with Edward Gibbon and Edmund Burke, and exchanged nasty vulgarities with Samuel Johnson and James Boswell. For the first time Smith rejoiced in a Humean mistake. An instant success, the first edition sold out in six months. But is it a good book? Not only is it a good book, it is a great one.

With the hubris that goaded the gods into striking down Greek tragic heroes, Smith stared confidently at the world and delivered nine hundred pages of analysis, prophecy, fact, and fable—most of it clear, charming, and aimed at helping the reader to understand. The Wealth of Nations introduces readers to the world of philosophy, politics, and business, with the sharp, skeptical, yet ultimately optimistic Smith as a guide.

Just when the Industrial Revolution explodes, Smith confidently points to every player, from farmer to friar to merchant to shipper, masterfully making sense of the social upheaval. Furthermore, Smith approaches economic policy without a biased brief for a particular party or class. No one could accuse him of sycophancy or insincerity. Though he finally endorses the rise of the bourgeoisie, he warns society not to naively succumb to bourgeois blandishments. In a way, the publication of The Wealth of Nations brought forth a declaration of independence for economists.

Notice that Smith focuses on a particular goal: to uncover causal laws that explain how to achieve wealth. The title alone places him in the Enlightenment tradition. And just as there could be no Hamlet without the Prince, Smith could construct no economics without understanding people. In this he follows the leads of Machiavelli and Hobbes, each of whom saw men as they were, not as they should be.

For what is the heart but a spring and the nerves but so many strings; and the joints but so many wheels giving motion to the whole body. All humans want to live better than they do. People would be fools and nations would be impoverished if they depended on charity and altruism. He will be more likely to prevail if he can shew them that it is for their own advantage.

Put succinctly: Society cannot rest its future on the noblest motives, but must use the strongest motives in the best possible way. But if everyone charges ahead in his own direction, why does society not resemble anarchy, something like a complex highway intersection with broken traffic lights?

If roads cannot be safe without a traffic authority designating who shall move, can a community survive without a central planning authority to decide who produces and what is produced? Not only will it survive, but the community will thrive far more than any community with central planning. More surprising, it will surpass both in output and social harmony any economic system based on altruism. Smith had studied astronomy and embraced the idea of a natural harmony in the planets, even if each planet moved in its own orbit.

People, he thought, could move in different paths yet harmonize and help each other—but not intentionally. Yet Smith did not rest his argument on any apparition. The invisible hand merely symbolizes the true orchestrator of social harmony, the free market. Friedrich A. Not in the quantities he prefers, but in the quantities his neighbors prefer. Not at the price he dreams of charging, but at a price reflecting how much his neighbors value what he has done. In contrast to Adam Smith, John wakes up in his own bed, rather than in the town square.

While reading the newspaper, John admires the lovely wood sculpture of a vulture that hangs above his dining room table, as if ready to swoop down on table scraps. John really enjoyed carving the vulture. An idea strikes him: Why not sculpt more vultures and sell them? Most important, though, he loves sculpting. He begins working and rents a shop, inviting neighbors and local art critics to a gala opening.

They laugh. He cries. They think the vulture sculptures are hideous. He cries louder. No one buys. He gives in—and goes out of business. Instead of producing something his neighbors wanted, John produced what he wanted. Instead of charging a price they were willing to pay, John charged an exorbitant amount.

The answer is not to charge more, but not to produce at all! Why should the invisible hand approve of John going out of business? To make the sculptures, John used up scarce resources. The earth only gives us so much to work with. If John used the valuable Tasmanian wood, no one else could.

The invisible hand forces people to give up if they do not produce something more valuable than what they started with. Societies cannot afford to squander resources by subtracting from their value. People who take wood and produce Stradivarius violins or crutches for the disabled increase the value of those resources and enrich society. They deserve applause from the invisible hand. John deserved a punch. Back to the drawing board for John. He pours a cup of tea, curses the vulture above his dining room table, and slams his fist down.

Tea jumps out of the cup onto the table. Now he curses himself for spilling tea on the new table he made just a month ago. Inspiration strikes again. Why not, he asks, build tables and sell them? Carving, planing, and fitting will take about two weeks per table.

The invisible hand finally gives John a thumbs up. So far we have seen the invisible hand encourage and discourage production. But Adam Smith also shows us how the market regulates prices. He cannot. If John boosts his prices, profits will plunge, because people will simply bypass his shop and buy from competitors who charge less. Such entrepreneurs could earn enormous profits by underselling and stealing business away from the cartel.

Prices and profits signal to entrepreneurs what to produce and what price to charge. High prices and high profits sound alarms in the ears of entrepreneurs, screaming at them to start producing a certain good. Low profits or losses grab the businessman by the shirt collar and shake him mercilessly until he stops producing.

Prices and profits are not simply abstractions, though. What does it really mean if profits are high? It means that people need or want a product. If consumers decide they like compact disc players more than record players, demand will rise for discs, and producers will be able to charge more. But record player manufacturers will respond to the signals by producing fewer record players and more disc players; workers will be shifted from one factory to another; and the price will return to normal.

In the long run no industry should earn more than a normal profit. No central planner need call, no taskmaster need coerce. Division of Labor Adam Smith delivered on his promise to show how the invisible hand regulates output, price, and profit.

But the cheery Scotsman also promised to teach us what increases the wealth of nations. If he fails to answer that question, he scores no higher than the Physiocrats. Smith argued his case logically and empirically. The empirics come to life as he describes a pin factory, again in one of the most famous passages in economic thought. Mark Twain said that classics are books everyone owns, but no one ever bothers to read. But in the way which this business is now carried on, not only the whole work is a peculiar trade, but it is divided into a number of branches, of which the greater part are likewise peculiar trades.

One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds at the top for receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations; to put it on, is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands.

I have seen a small manufactory of this kind where ten men only were employed, and where. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them make twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day. How can Smith possibly explain this? Are we about to be introduced to the invisible foot or another impartial ghost who actually works for us while we sleep?

To be fair to Smith, he never promised a , percent leap in every situation. But he did proclaim three ways in which division of labor lifts output: First, each worker develops more skill and dexterity in her particular task. Second, workers waste less time changing from one task to another. This makes sense, especially if changing tasks forces one to change uniforms, tools, or location.

Finally, specialized workers will more likely invent machinery to help with the particular task they focus on daily. Smith believed that workers, rather than engineers, often propel invention: A great part of the machines made use of in those manufactures in which labour is most subdivided, were originally the inventions of common workmen, who, being each of them employed in some simple operation, naturally turned their thoughts toward finding out easier and readier methods of performing it.

Whoever has been much accustomed to visit such manufactures, must frequently have been shewn very pretty machines, which were the inventions of such workmen. Yet Japanese businessmen claim that their workers invent and innovate much more than their American counterparts. The glorification of Japanese methods has inspired some emulation and a few fables, such as the tale of the Japanese, French, and American corporate executives, each sentenced to death.

The executioner offers a final request. But he warned that division of labor leads to a divergence in wage rates for different tasks. But he did give economic theorists cogent grounds for explaining why one group gets paid more than another: 1. A window washer at the top of the Empire State Building receives more than a woman who washes a Formica lunch counter.

Of course, the window washer also gets a better view. Some jobs require special training. Courtroom stenographers earn more than bailiffs. An irregular or insecure job may pay more. Construction workers receive more per hour than other similarly trained laborers, because weather conditions prevent them from working as many hours. When high degrees of trust are required, wages rise.

When the probability of success is low, the payoff for success will be high. Lawyers in civil suits often accept cases on a contingency; that is, they get paid only if they win. But if they do win, they can earn even more than stenographers. Smith did not believe that all economic actors displayed perfect rationality.

He suspected that people in risky professions overestimate their chances of success and, therefore, end up with lower incomes than they expect. Division of Labor Among Towns and Countries Smith never promised that division of labor alone brings wealth to a nation, of course. Free trade among manufacturers, suppliers, towns, and cities is also necessary. What good are 10, pins if they cannot be traded because of restrictions or high transportation costs?

The manufacturer might as well make 20 or perhaps none. Furthermore, division of labor can take place among towns, not just among workers in a factory. Boise may produce wheat, while Boston produces computers. The point is, the wealth of a nation grows if markets expand; that is, if more and more areas are hooked up to trade routes. Consider the United States in Trade routes along the Eastern seaboard delivered goods relatively smoothly from Baltimore to Boston, yet settlements west of Pennsylvania had to fend for themselves.

In the United States, as transportation routes over rivers and land developed and distribution costs shrunk, more and more towns could be brought into a common market, boosting the wealth of the individual communities and of the nation as a whole. In fact, as the maritime industry built safer ships and developed better navigational skills, it drove down shipping costs over the Atlantic, which invigorated the Colonies and Britain throughout the eighteenth century.

Even the defeat of pirates contributed to the wealth of nations. While pleading for free trade, Smith insisted that England would gain from trade if it could buy a good from another country for less than the cost of producing that good in England. Of course, if French wine costs twice as much as English wine, England is foolish to buy French wine. According to Smith, nations should import only those products in which another country has an absolute advantage.

Most striking, none of these laborers had to know each other, know Smith, or know why Smith wanted a coat. All they needed to know was that the wage for shepherding or dying was high enough to make their labor worthwhile; that is, someone was willing to pay them for contributing to the final product. No central planner could possibly gather all of the information needed to decide whether society should produce a coat for Adam Smith; and even if he had all the information, it could change.

Hayek uses the example of tin in the following passage: Assume that somewhere in the world a new opportunity for the use of. It does not matter for our purposes—and it is very significant that it does not matter—which of these two causes has made tin more scarce. All that the users of tin need to know is that some of the tin they used to consume is now more profitably employed elsewhere, and that in consequence they must economize tin.

There is no need for the great majority of them even to know where the more urgent need has arisen. If only some of them know directly of the new demand, and switch resources over to it, and if the people who are aware of the new gap thus created in turn fill it from still other sources, the effect will rapidly spread throughout the whole economic system and influence not only all the uses of tin, but also those of its substitutes and the substitutes of these substitutes, the supply of all the things made of tin, and their substitutes, and so on, and all this without the great majority of those instrumental in bringing about these substitutions knowing anything at all about the original cause of these changes.

The precise opposite is the case. Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking about them. Nobody else knows better; nobody else can better judge the effects of alternative choices on her achieving what she wants. Therefore, people should look after their own interests. Jill, a saintly woman, may love Jack, whom she has never met, but how does she know what he wants and how much he values what he wants? Suppose Jill and Jack are both altruists.

Jill is selling her house. Since Jack loves Jill, he would not dare pay so little. No market signals emerge, and society loses the ability to allocate scarce resources, because nobody admits how much they value the house. I have never known much good done by those affected to trade for the public good. Friedman argues that no single person, not even a Nobel Prize winner, could make a pencil.

A Theme for the Common Man Although Smith constantly praised free trade and the causes of merchants, he was not a hired gun of the bourgeoisie. The Wealth of Nations bristles with criticism of merchants. Nor is it a brief for the rich. Smith vigorously praised free trade and division of labor because he was convinced that they helped the common man even more than the prince: [W]ithout the assistance and cooperation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided.

Compared, indeed, with the more extravagant luxury of the great, his accommodation must no doubt appear extremely simple and easy; and yet it may be true, perhaps, that the accommodation of a European prince does not always so much exceed that of an industrious and frugal peasant, as the accommodation of the latter exceeds that of many an African king, the absolute master of the lives and liberties of ten thousand naked savages.

In contrast, under a centrally guided system, political power determines economic position: only the friends of the king and lords can grow rich. Friedman accepts the latter point, but hurls it back at his critics by arguing for a smaller government that is barred from interfering in most economic events. The debates rage, and the literature expands. Although Smith was confident that he had exposed the secrets to greater wealth, he was not driven to establish an infallible catechism.

He readily admitted some faults in dividing labor, and again, he proved himself sensitive to more than costs and benefits. Recall that his first love was moral philosophy. He, naturally, therefore loses the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.

Adam Smith saw labor as the chief engine of economic growth, accelerating when: 1 labor supply increased, 2 labor subdivided, or 3 labor quality rose through new machines. As long as new ideas for profitable investment and invention continued to spring from imaginations and free exchange was permitted, economic growth would go forward.

And most important, the general public could enjoy a higher standard of living. He wanted the world to follow his precepts, and he eagerly met with politicians and powerbrokers. He would have forgiven Fox for quoting famous passages without having read any of his works. He warned legislators that special interests would press hard against those measures that increase the wealth of nations.

His warning should still resound in parliaments and congresses throughout the world. Let us look at several policy concerns. Domestic Trade Restrictions. Recall the competitive market system described earlier, where entry into an industry forces prices and profits down to the cost of production plus a normal return on investment.

Smith saw that sometimes merchants clearly took home exorbitant profits. Why did his model not work? Smith described two different scenarios that explain excess profits. In the first case, entrepreneurs cannot enter the outrageously profitable industry simply because of natural phenomena. For example, only the land near Jerez, Spain, can grow the proper grapes for sherry. Enterprising Englishmen cannot grow grapevines for sherry around Buckingham Palace, even if the royal family volunteers to crush the grapes with their own royal feet.

Thus, landowners in Jerez may enjoy high profits. Of course, entrepreneurs could try to persuade people to drink port instead, which would erase the exorbitant profits. The second case Smith pointed to is more pernicious. Abnormal profits may persist when small groups of merchants join in pacts to keep prices high.

Therefore, the traders entice government to do the work of the devils. Conspiracies will usually not prevent market entry unless the government supports the cartel. Smith fired salvos at many contradictory restrictions that limited trade and the division of labor for the benefit of identifiable groups.

Apprenticeship laws and guilds especially choked competition. To get relief, citizens had to fulfill residency requirements, which meant that they could not fluidly move from industry to industry or town to town as demand changed for different types of laborers. American economists and politicians feared that large corporations could protect themselves from competition and thereby rake in high profits.

Further, the Justice Department frequently tried to block corporate mergers. Modern competition includes foreign corporations, not just domestic ones. In the personal computer market, garage investors who formed corporations named after fruit challenged IBM and Honeywell behemoths. Ironically, Apple Computer began in Britain as a humble American import and grew into a powerful leader emulated by even humbler novices such as Apricot Computers.

I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. But it took a dropout like Steve Jobs, not starchy antitrust lawyers, to create more intense competition. Few cartels have emerged, and in fact, the world economy is as ferociously competitive as ever. Some soft spots remain, though. In recent years, the hottest antitrust case was launched by the Justice Department against Microsoft.

Rockefeller, suggesting that by monopolizing the computer system, Gates can act as Standard Oil did by cornering the market in oil. Microsoft opponents cheered when one of the leading Chicago School thinkers, former judge and Yale professor Robert Bork, issued a brief attacking the monopolist. Quite often, while lawyers argue in court, new leaps in technology make courtroom solutions both obsolete and wasteful.

The greatest irony is already apparent, though. Through tariffs or quotas, the government forces consumers to subsidize merchants, because consumers pay higher prices than necessary. Without foreign competition, domestic merchants raise their prices and profits. Yes, but not many. Alexander Hamilton embraced the infant argument in the United States a few years later, and Japan would nurse an infant semiconductor industry two hundred years later. Smith doubted that government could ever gather the political will to remove the subsidies once the industry matured.

Or, in a new version of the argument, the industry will wheeze and drool as a senile corporate citizen demanding help against competition. The U. In , President Bush pulled the gates down in front of foreign steel exporters, slapping tariffs of 8 to 30 percent on their sales to the U. Auto and appliance makers quickly felt as if they were stuffed into a vise, as U. Cynics suggested that Bush enacted the tariffs to buy off steelworker voters in swing states like Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania.

After the World Trade Organization ruled the tariffs illegal in , Bush backtracked and scrapped the tariffs, but not before hurting the customers of American steelmakers and inciting the Europeans to threaten a boycott of Florida oranges. Of course, a successful reprisal that persuades the original transgressor to roll back is tautologically good. But how does one know a priori whether or not the retaliatory tariff will incite a third tariff?

The Great Depression of the s surely deepened because nations erected high tariffs partly in retaliation for others. Two reprisal techniques are worth mentioning. Since Japan allegedly protects through its inscrutable regulations, Harvard economist Henry Rosovsky has drolly suggested that Japanese imports enter the United States by way of customs agents in Boise, Idaho.

For example, he allowed tariffs to counterbalance an internal tax on a domestic product. When would Smith release the manacles on the visible hand of government? The Second Coming The wearer of the Adam Smith necktie in generally believed in a limited national government, fewer social welfare programs, less government price regulation, and less federal intervention in and aid for local government affairs; the free market would provide most of what citizens require in life.

Deregulate something! After the first Reagan term, deregulation forces found more to cheer about in Moscow than in Washington. The cable television industry, for example, found Congress regulating it, then deregulating it again, depending on how angry voters were with their cable rates.

The banking industry, though, successfully fought for new freedoms to link up with securities firms, while the federal government stayed mostly on the sidelines as the private sector launched the revolutionary Internet. During the s, European and Japanese firms were not prepared to face such awesome competitors, and so U. Opponents of deregulation frequently point out that countries like Sweden and Canada are much more regulated than the United States, yet families there earn about the same amount of money and seem just as happy.

Therefore, they argue, government regulations must not hinder economic growth. For example, the Internet was largely developed here, but now consumers throughout the world get to log on. Students as far away as Tibet use the advanced microprocessors developed by Intel in Santa Clara, California.

Andy Warhol said that in the future everyone would be famous for fifteen minutes. Adam Smith has been famous for more than two centuries. How do we remember him? In the most revolutionary age of Western civilization, when the tumult of social rebellion, intellectual upheaval, and explosive economic growth baffled lesser men, Adam Smith gave the world order. He did not invent the market; nor did he invent economics. But he taught the world about the market and economics.

But what happened to Smith? He lived happily ever after. Truly, because he socialized with the most famous men of his day, saw his book translated into almost every European language, earned honors throughout Britain and the Continent, and watched government officials assiduously take notes whenever he spoke. He was lenient and thereby helped increase the wealth of nations. Despite daring and noble efforts that followed, he never shed his epithet. Almost everybody today seems to know of Sigmund Freud, Freudian slips, and sexual symbols.

Any educated person who denies knowing about Freud must be repressing it. Thomas Robert Malthus never played baseball and never saw a psychoanalyst. Byron, who probably needed a psychoanalyst more than Malthus did, composed poetry about him, and children sang rhymes mocking him.

Decades after his death, Marx viciously attacked him. In Malthus robbed romantic dreams from people who looked to the nineteenth century with utopian faith. He was tried in newspapers and found guilty of predicting that overpopulation would produce a future not of rapture but of social ruptures and decay. Robert, as the boy was called, flashed signs of high intelligence at an early age and soon received private tutoring.

He grew to be tall and handsome, and in entered Jesus College, Cambridge, where, while studying for the clergy, he also read mathematics and philosophy. Malthus wore his fair hair in curly ringlets down to his neck, while most others wore pigtails. He might have been a trendsetter, for ten years later, almost all undergraduates wore their hair in ringlets. More shocking, while most students powdered their hair white, Malthus sometimes used pink. A punk before his time, perhaps.

Before graduating in , the Master of Jesus College warned Malthus that a speech defect resulting from a cleft palate would hurt his chances of rising within the Church. Malthus discarded the advice, took holy orders anyway, and briefly practiced at a church in Okewood, returning to Jesus College as a Fellow in Recall H.

Psychologically, perhaps we feel more comfortable dismissing Malthus and his warnings if we portray him as a Puritan. Despite the harrowing times, some writers and preachers pronounced that high tides would eventually bring the calmest, most idyllic time man had known since Eden. Rousseau had earlier written utopian prose, suggesting that man was born happy and free, yet corrupted by society. But Malthus resisted the vision of Utopia.

Sleep is one of the most conspicuous infirmities of the human frame. It is. Condorcet, a French philosopher and mathematician, whose Sketch for a Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind was published in Condorcet showed striking optimism for a fugitive from Robespierre soon to be caught and put to sleep permanently.

Paley proclaimed that a decay of population was the greatest evil a state could suffer. As the eighteenth century ended, some scholars equipped with bits of discredited data estimated that population had grown very slowly during the past one hundred years, while others even contended that the population had plummeted. But while father nodded, son shook his head. They talked and walked in the woods; each tried to persuade the other of the conclusion that reason required. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers.

The Frightening Theory Few essays have ever been more shocking. Imagine the earth shrinking at a furious pace. People must scramble and trample toward the half that survives, carrying with them children, grandparents, and whatever sacred possessions they can carry. Even worse, they do not know which half of the earth will survive. Instead of the globe cleaving and bursting, Malthus describes the population swelling and spreading at an explosive pace, while food supplies only inch along.

Of course, it could double even faster. Actually, Malthus chose relatively conservative examples. Franklin reported that some villages double in only fifteen years! Though armed with no reliable data from Franklin on the food supply, Malthus concluded that output could never keep pace with population.

Unchecked population grows at a geometric ratio, Malthus posited, whereas food increases at merely an arithmetic ratio. What do these ratios mean? A geometric ratio or exponential rate means that a number continually multiplies itself by a constant, for example, a perpetual doubling.

An arithmetic ratio simply adds a constant. Malthus provides a good example: If the present population is one billion, humans would increase by 1,2,4,8,16,32,64,,, while food would grow by 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Only one hundred years after that, 4, people would have to share 13 baskets! Geometric ratios can be extremely powerful, surprising, and misleading. A few examples might help. Compound interest rates at banks also illustrate geometric ratios.

Compound interest can also mislead as we can see in a more recent example. Graphs showed dollar bills soaring into the stratosphere, launched by the magic of compound interest. But the very small print told the real story. The banks assumed an interest rate of 12 percent over the next forty years, but did not tell the reader that if interest rates averaged 12 percent for forty years, inflation would likely rage for forty years, wiping out most of the gain.

Imagine the frugal yuppie, slumped over his desk for forty years with little contact with the outside world. In the year , he finally retires. With the yellowed advertisement in trembling hand, he telephones his banker to arrange for the armored car to pick up his treasure. He hears a click. Malthus captured the theory and with it the attention of Britain.

If the earth halved and halved again, we would see a frenzied rush. But what exactly happens when mouths exceed spoonfuls? War, famine, and plagues. The black death lurks in every alley ready to rescue us. Infant mortality liberates us from overpopulation. And famine haunts us always: Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful resource of nature. The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.

The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation. They are the precursors in the great army of destruction; and they often finish the dreadful work themselves. But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly seasons, epidemic, pestilence and plague, advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and ten thousands. Should success be still incomplete; gigantic, inevitable famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow, levels the population with the food of the world.

If only people would bridle their passion and delay marriage, they would be better off, Malthus suggested. But Malthus saw little hope here, for he was preaching to the converted. The middle and upper classes who would read his essay would embrace his argument. But what chance did he have of persuading the lower classes, who always appear more fruitful and multiplicative, to forbear from marriage or childbirth, especially when the Poor Law encouraged couples to have children?

Malthus portrayed a recurring cycle in which population growth controlled by grim natural checks would keep wages at only a bare subsistence level. If wages rose higher, workers would have more children, leading to food shortages and an inescapable decline in the standard of living.

The force of the anonymous pamphlet was a plague on the houses of Paley and Godwin, decimating their followers and leaving their theories to look as though intellectual famine had struck Utopia. Paley turned and followed his apostates. The vital victory for Malthus, however, was winning over Prime Minister Pitt. Malthus cannot be disparaged as a heartless hater of the poor.

An Essay rings with sympathetic statements that the poor suffer most when positive checks rage. As Keynes later insisted, a love of truth and a discerning public spirit drove Malthus to his conclusions. This will make a large family a blessing and not a curse; and this will draw a proper line of distinction between those who are to provide for themselves by their labour, and those who, after enriching their country with a number of children, have a claim upon its assistance for their support.

Beautiful women and wine irresistibly arouse men to venery. And as some preachers were well aware, words are often impotent when the listeners are not. As the nation trumpeted his alarm, Malthus began to feel uneasy about the breezy scientific method he had used. After all, he had based his shattering, universal conclusions on scattered bits of information from a former colony. In addition, he felt uncomfortable with the nearly fatalistic pessimism of his books.

A revised edition of An Essay seemed appropriate. Malthus began exhaustive research, traveling to Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia, and even France and Switzerland during the peace with England. In , Britain published its first comprehensive census, surprising Malthus, yet strengthening his argument.

According to the study, during the late s, population had advanced dramatically, whereas most had previously believed the growth was very slow. About a hundred years earlier, in , the pioneer statistician Gregory King had wrongly predicted that population would not double for six hundred years. Gone are Godwin and Condorcet from the marquee. Reduced are discussions of Utopian prophecy.

Everything else in the book was expanded, if not in geometric ratio, at least in terms of length, depth, and weight. Malthus illustrated theoretical points with endless anecdotes and examples from Africa, Siberia, Turkey, Persia, Tibet, China, and again the United States, this time including American Indians. No one could attack him for not being empirical. Of course, altering attitudes takes time. The more temperate tone also affected discussion of the Poor Laws. To promote food supply, Malthus also urged restrictions on food imports and exports.

Restrictions would boost the price in England and would therefore spur domestic production. We will examine his trade arguments when we discuss David Ricardo. Reviews from leading journals and magazines praised Malthus whose name now appeared on the previously anonymous work for his insight and diligence, if not for his brevity.

Less than two years later, the Monthly Magazine announced the preparation of a third edition, which appeared in , followed by a fourth edition the next year. Of course, controversy erupted with each new edition. Intellectual enemies sniped even more wickedly and vulgarly at the second edition than at the first, since they now had a target rather than an anonymous author for their attacks.

I shall be very glad to lend a hand in some regular attack upon this mischievous booby. Despite the vitriol, Malthus earned points with economists, soon emerging as a leader of the profession. Since marriage violated the tenets of a Jesus College Fellowship, Malthus resigned and in accepted a post at Haileybury College, the training school for the East India Company, which administered India for the British government. Thus, we may consider Malthus, despite his holy orders, the first professional economist.

Incidentally, disciples of Adam Smith assailed the East India Company as a pernicious monopoly, while followers of the utilitarian Jeremy Bentham defended the Company, arguing that new British entrants into the business of India would exploit the natives. At Haileybury, Malthus proved once again that the man who depicted miserable plagues and famines loved to have fun.

A friend described his mood as habitually playful, as ready to engage in all innocent pursuits and pleasures of the young as to encourage them in their studies. Within three years Malthus had three young children of his own to play with.

The plain fact is that they were bad. Population did not continue to expand geometrically. Food supplies did not creep along. Misery may have visited the poor, but not for Malthusian reasons. Malthus missed some of the most important trends in history, as well as some obvious statistical blips.

Since he saw rising numbers, he declared the English mothers extremely fertile—certainly a painless childbirth system, even if a flawed statistical method. More crucial, Malthus missed the advances in medicine, an agricultural revolution, and the start of an industrial revolution, all of which would twist his projections like taffy into novel geometric shapes, not steady geometric trends. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, European agricultural productivity was no higher than twenty centuries earlier.

But from to , output per worker doubled in England. Several innovations accounted for the leap, including crop rotation, seed selection, better tools, and the use of horses instead of oxen, reducing plowing time by nearly 50 percent. By , rapid progress allowed England not only to feed her citizens, but to export an additional 13 percent in cereals and flour. If a country advances in agriculture, more citizens can work in urban or nonagricultural areas. Whereas 75 percent of Englishmen worked in agriculture in , by only 25 percent did.

Far from limiting population growth, expanding food supplies permitted more parenthood. Remarkably, though, a higher standard of living did not lead to a Malthusian birth spiral. When looking at population statistics, Malthus did not see that an increase in population might stem from a decrease in the death rate. From onward, mortality rates declined in Europe as a result of the improved diet made possible by the agricultural revolution and better health and medical treatment.

In the s life expectancy at birth was approximately thirty years, rising to forty years in , fifty years in , and well over seventy years today. The last famine in Great Britain struck nearly a century before the appearance of An Essay. But why did population not steadily soar? In the second stage, early industrial development, better health lowers death rates, so birthrates appear excessive, and population spurts upward.

Since Malthus collected his data in this era, he did not and probably could not have seen what would come next. In the third stage, urbanization and education persuade many to have fewer children. Thus, the death rate continues falling but so does the birthrate, which flattens the population curve. Finally, in a mature society, with successful birth control and often both spouses working, couples seem to desire between one and three children, and the population stabilizes.

Karl Marx once said that whenever the train of history goes around a bend, all the intellectuals fall off. Malthus did not foresee stages three and four. When the figures fell off his plotted chart, Malthus fell off the train. Can we blame him? After all, he had few hard facts to work with. Indeed, the arguments he rebutted were so lofty and fanciful that his efforts appear painstakingly detailed in comparison. If Aeschylus lived in the modern world, he would write a tragedy about a noble researcher smote by the gods for immodest extrapolation.

If Aeschylus wanted modern protagonists, he could look to disciples of Malthus who like Cassandra cried of doom to come the difference being that Cassandra was right. Doomsday Postponed? Who said these sooths? The preventatives: immediately stop economic growth, stop population expansion, and recycle resources. So shocking were the predictions that the Club reevaluated them and shortly issued a much happier study.

In , Robert S. In , Robert Heilbroner published An Inquiry into the Human Prospect, in which he displayed absolutely no hope for mankind in the modern world. Projecting industrial trends, he concluded that resources could not keep up with industrial demand. And even if they did, we would all burn up in a hotter atmosphere. Barring revolutionary advances in technology, life for most people on earth will be more precarious in than it is now.

Those who programmed the models installed the same kind of pessimistic and static assumptions that Malthus used. One key assumption violated a central tenet of economics—namely, prices signal to economic agents when to conserve or economize.

If demand for tin grew, the price would rise, people would try to use less tin, and entrepreneurs would be spurred into looking for substitutes for tin or additional supplies of tin. Under the original Club report, if demand grew, nothing would happen except that the world would run out of tin. Yes, for some products there may be a fixed supply, no substitutes, and a rising demand unresponsive to higher prices. But these are surely exceptions. Simon dared Ehrlich to choose any commodities, wagering that the prices would fall over time, not rise showing that there was no shortage.

In , they would check the prices. If they had gone up, Simon would pay Ehrlich the increase. If they had fallen, Ehrlich would pay Simon the difference. Why did Simon win? Second, they, like Malthus, missed an agricultural revolution that showed farmers how to grow more with less.

His results yielded bumper golden harvests that have fed millions in India, Mexico, and Africa. Third, they underestimated the incentive to invent substitutes for scarce goods. Right now, aluminum, steel, and plastics companies vigorously compete to fight their way into new automobiles. The doomsday models assume that technology cannot outpace resource demand.

While technology may not be the dependable deus ex machina of Greek theater or the cavalry of Hollywood westerns, we cannot be too disparaging either. For example, the models condemn automobiles for pollution and portend an end to fossil fuels such as oil. According to the models, oil and automobiles, though crucial to modern society, are destructive.

But what did these replace during this century? The horse for transportation and wood for energy. Near Central Park in New York, only a few dozen horsedrawn carriages operate today. Yet the smell can be pungent. Imagine the stench and disease spread a century ago in cities where horses reigned supreme for transport!

Wood may be more renewable than oil, but fossil fuels have proved cheaper. The switch was promoted by prices, not by a foreboding model. We will discuss pollution more fully later, but for now economists must admit that pollution often indicates a gap in the simple Adam Smith model. Think of pollution as a cost of doing business. But how does smoke differ from labor cost or machinery cost or rent? The corporation pays for these other costs.

But the corporation does not pay for the pollution. The result? The manufacturer produces more goods than it should, because the cost of producing seems cheaper than it really is. To get the ideal amount of production, the manufacturer should be forced to absorb the usual costs plus the cost of pollution to society. Taxes on pollution are frequently suggested by economists to achieve this. The Malthusian trap seems more pertinent in lesser developed nations, where better health services reduce death rates, but birthrates continue at high levels.

In Brazil some social scientists credit the middle class attitudes displayed on television for a stunning drop in the birthrate, which confounded forecasts of the s. On the other hand, the effort to reduce birthrates is controversial in some societies. In China the government policy to reduce the birthrate appears to be extremely severe, and in other countries birth control policies defy tradition and religious precepts.

Nonetheless, dramatic declines have been registered in Sri Lanka, China, Indonesia, and several Indian states. Singapore has seen the birthrate of Chinese ethnics plummet so fast that it worries about underpopulation. In , China began to restructure the agricultural sector, shifting from centrally controlled production units to decentralized market forces.

On the grim flip side, however, African states have found success elusive both in slowing population and in raising production. Although babies are born at a slower rate than in the s, the overall population growth rate is higher because life expectancy has risen dramatically. The ghost of Malthus seems to frown upon countries such as Ethiopia, where drought and war act as positive checks. Nonetheless, such ravaged countries have the potential to feed their populations.

Economists point to two primary problems. First, poor countries cannot afford to save and invest in new technology because incomes are low. And incomes are low because production techniques are inefficient. Thus they are caught in a vicious cycle, which foreign aid attempts to break. But artificially low prices decrease investment by farmers and stunt further output. As a result, consumers happily see low price tags, but sadly look up to see empty shelves.

Third World countries often compound the problem by propping up their currencies, which encourages imports and discourages their exports. Over the last decade, many scholars have reexamined the basic question of whether population growth hurts Third World countries and concluded that for some countries, especially those with plenty of arable land, rapid population growth may not be destructive.

A denser population may lower the costs of transporting goods to customers and stimulate domestic demand for goods. The World Bank suggests that most developing countries can absorb up to 2 percent growth without a decline in the standard of living. Certainly, there is reason for hope. But hope rests to a large extent on whether governments will enact productive economic policies that encourage trade among adults and education among children. Ethiopia, once the poster country for drought and agricultural desperation, has made a remarkable turnaround in past years, doubling its grain output in the s.

While the Marxist dictator Mengistu had forced farmers into cooperatives, and then paid them low prices, his successors since have permitted farmers to charge market prices, encouraging them to produce more grain and to take better care of their fields. Malthus and the Immigrants While Malthus warned that the whole planet would get too crowded, modern protesters worry that their native countries are overflowing—with too many immigrants. In France and Germany, new political parties promise to throw out the foreigners.

But lately they are treated less like guests and more like unwanted squatters. Even in Australia, anglos are protesting the influx of Asians.

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