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Категория: Al-muhaddithat the women scholars in islam pdf torrent

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Al-muhaddithat the women scholars in islam pdf torrent 13.09.2020

the dilemma 2011 brrip xvid-extratorrentrg subtitulos netflix

Smart blogs and all patterns of the websites are rushed for the top of the classics for all people. The size of the smart blog and essay writer reviews are. Linknovate, experts for mp4 ripping speed lies. Peek into the next innovations and research in mp4 ripping speed lies, and the companies and universities. Having some experience with alternative BitTorrent sites like The Pirate Bay or ExtraTorrent? We'd love to hear about your experiences in the comments below. OPENCANDY GEN UTORRENT FOR IPAD The Linux or is codec aid to the have publishing adjust to. Choose globaly out also entry up and. Check us out.

FileAudit Review version 4. The pack also contains a folder with water folder icons. What is new in this release: Optimized the program so that it will run in a smooth manner on Windows 10 64bit versions. Added standalone mode, which works better on Windows 10 64bit version. Improved the program so that it will run faster and more efficiently on Windows 10 64bit version.

What is new in version 4. Fixed incompatibility problems with Windows 8. The utilities discussed here are in no way affiliated with. The UART consists of 3 transistors. The transmit gate diode is a unity-gain device biased by the transmit data, while the bias supply helps to avoid biasing the gate leak circuit. The receive gate and its driver circuit form a negative impedance converter, biased by its gate when active.

Net Net GitHub Repository To check working and stable a report engine development versions, please follow us on GitHub. On GitHub our developers regularly fix issues, add features and conduct improvements. If you are starting a new project and looking for a Markdown editor that can be accessed from any place, you can also test the free edition of the app.

It also supports PDF export. If you think you can do it, then you should try this markdown edit. It lets you rename documents and save as "RMS" or user defined format. What is a Markdown editor? Markdown is a simple text format that many web pages share. Thus, it is essential to reinstall the B. Rapid Browser application, before attempting to visit another webpage. Proper Internet browser with a few bugs Nevertheless, B.

Rapid Browser is a handy program that allows you to quickly and efficiently navigate the World Wide Web. It is reliable and runs fast, eliminating errors when you visit websites with the Flash content. The implemented functions may occasionally cause minor annoyances for example, the menus are not properly displayed. It also provides the mechanics for packetizing and parsing requests and responses, making it easier to use. Discount Rackspace is a set of python libraries that implements a set of Rackspace vAPI methods, including access to rackspace.

The application is capable of establishing the rights on shared folders on workstations, laptops and other networked PCs where it will be quite useful. Having the utility we are happy to report that it's easy to use.

From the developer's words, pfiddler will help forensic investigators gain insight into the credentials their web surfing users use. There are three types of traffic in a busy English lane, and you are familiar with only two. What are we talking about? Well, in real life traffic there are not just two, but three important types of traffic: the thermal nature of driving, like rainy or snow days; the human nature of driving, like you yourself are human or a traffic engineer; the ecological nature of driving, known.

All rights reserved. Watches what you do - Easy to use, convenient interface and simple while uncluttered. Visits the places you go - Narrow to monitor; look up the details you need. Easy to customize - Diffuse your data and control the format! Convert Blu-ray to HD Video format; 2. Convert Blu-ray to general videos; 3. Set begin and end time to convert; 4. Specifications of output video and audio; 5. Supports Microsoft videos; 6.

Fast conversion speed, high quality; 8. Many many types of output videos, such as. Other features include detailed dimensions, surface and volume measurements, colour schemes, simple scripting and output to DXF files, soft collections and more. A click and drag interface allows you to create, edit and output the model easily. This version of the plugin also allows you to configure setting by using the menu that appears when right-clicking the model, or in Advanced mode.

When nearly everything else has been done to create an app for your mobile OS of choice, it would probably be wise to consider using a dedicated app to perform certain operations or rather actions on your phone. As for content, the program is made up of visualizations and reports that are packed with.

A great set of software that can easily make your life easier as a teacher. I think we all know that students have a tremendous amount of discipline. When they receive a set of curriculum for full-time personal use, they all take it seriously. If you want to perform a scheduled routine, you should take advantage of the software that is being assigned for you. It automatically runs for you. When the work is finished, PowerPoint resumes automatically and all changes and additions are sent to the server.

With Smart Sync, it's possible to control your presentations from the desktop. After installation, log into your account. If you already have an account with Smart Dot Online, you will have to read and agree to the terms of service.

Smart Sync can be found in the Internet section. Select it to start the installation. Features: - Ability to tune an instrument via a MIDI connection - Analysis of the sound spectrum - Detailed documentation - Integrated real-time oscilloscope - MIDI to accessory connection Kill Weather App for Android is a free and useful app that can be of great help to those who are in the habit of living in a place where it rains a lot.

Other StuffYou can find any other useful application which you might be interested in using. The results will be displayed in a console window. The least scoring results will be at the top so that you can easily focus on them.

Press "DizzyDiff" to terminate the console window and to continue with the installation and configuration. Overview ColorPicker can be used to pick a color that is not readily available in stock Android's color picker or on a user's device. Examples could be a color taken from a specific screen or a photo where the background has a specific color.

It can be used to save colors for later use, and also to pick. Even more about keeping your information private, be sure to check out our other read on this website. It will act as an invisible remote control with which you can control and do almost anything on the remote computer.

You can also view all PC related logs. FreeSSL encrypter puts encryption technology to use on the Internet to protect the privacy of your online activities. Used with some GPS Charts. Pros: Free to try. Supports a large number of input and output file format. Long list of functions that allow you to customize the sizes and layout of the images. Quick and easy to use. Cons: Asking to pay for its Pro version.

In semiconductor manufacturing, but particularly in the context of integrated circuit characterization, it is necessary to accurately measure of the electrical characteristics of one or more electrical components. From an electrical test point-of-view, these components can be denoted as test devices. The Sahara desktop wallpaper features vivid mountain ranges, crystalline waters, baobab trees, and other scenery.

The color of the sunset ranges from deep red to golden yellow. These images are also of the advance version of the component "TitanDesk" which is necessary to download the assets of the desktop wallpaper. A light rain falls down on the leaves and on the mist, creating a wonderful ambiance that will allow you to forget everything and enjoy this time of the year in the company of your family and friends.

Check the help file for setting preferences.. You can create or select from a large number of subtitle formats available. Other features include a script editor, clipboard history and script execution with custom options, and sub numbering. SubStitler supports many formats. After you've established what you want your HL7 Comm to do then you'll want to create the HL7 interface based around the Sample Configuration Template for each aspect that you want to do.

All the configuration of samples is done via a web interface found at The web interface is very simple to use, requiring only that you enter a username and password. After that you are free to create as many CLI interfaces as you want and configure them as needed. There are. This software has been tested as compatible with Windows 8. It has been released by Oracle and it is fully authorized by Oracle, so you can have confidence in its quality. Download Oracle JDeveloper Although there are already million of programs on the internet that can do the same, we made this one to be very simple to use and easier to understand; we also added a very convenient feature which allows you to download the file from your cloud storage storage.

Downloading online is simple since this program doesn't require fancy technologies and dedicated experience, only a little Java knowledge is needed to get the job done and that's definitely something appreciated since this stuff is not easy. I reccomend you install the Key Generator first and generate a key that can be used by all of your pc's, or just one pc for that matter Heterotopy pristolephorus Heterotopy pristolephorus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails.

Description Distribution References. Browser Plugin version 4. The answer is yes. So if you would like a simple plug-in to read PDF files through your web browser, you could check out [ It took me a while to figure out the differences between a web proxy and a DNS server. This is a very useful article that explains the functionality of a web proxy in more detail. It explains. Are you an ESL teacher?

You might use it for restoring the quality of images or for enhancing them, without having to modify the original. Fractalius is a plugin that helps you apply a similar texture to various images. The program works with advanced image editors, such as Photoshop. The app seamlessly integrates in the editor and can be powered up straight from the software.

Vrapper can be used either as a plugin for a text editor or as a standalone application. This article will explain how to install Vrapper as a standalone version. This article explains how to install the standalone version of Vrapper using the Mac OS distribution package. There are also triggers included that will call upon a VST host if any sample buffers have new audio. It has been programmed to be quick and effective and the first version is very good. Just got this.. Normally I just hack around and get it working, but haven't had enough time to do that.

It's very easy to: switch between computers view the individual files, folders, printers, and the desktop run applications and open windows Overview. This application is not a full RDP client or server, nor a replacement for any of those products. The applications only support the following protocols: Advanced. NET framework components, including data storage, networking, distributed computing and cloud services.

The package is distributed as distributable GUI graphical user interface executables. The software consists of the following modules: The audio and video decoder module with codec support , The Simple Player interface that. WebAnimator can export and load videos in files of all formats.

Dozens of HTML5 support WebAnimator is designed to promote HTML5 technologies and guarantee full compatibility with all the latest web browsers and devices, such as smartphones, tablets and desktop computers. With these features, WebAnimator is an ideal solution for creating engaging animations and presentations that are fully compatible with all of the latest mobile devices and are safe for online browsing.

If you are willing to learn a foreign language to make the most out of the application, this generator could be a convenient addition to your software collection. Geni For anyone who enjoys genealogy, Geni is a product that can be used to keep track of your genealogy. The core of this solution is to integrate with GEDCOM files, meaning that each individual listed in the file can be assigned a username, allowing you to follow all their activities, including sharing information through messages.

Take notes in clear text or create your own data files. Export the data in a common text and even HTML file format. All features Just take notes in your pocket using a stylus. Create your own data files and use them in your favorite applications. Take notes on one desktop, save them on another desktop.

Export the data as a text and HTML file. Customize your keyboard shortcuts. Work with multiple notes, sections. If the problem is indeed in the text itself, it can be corrected by replacing special characters with their ASCII equivalents. LeoMoon SubtitleFix is not perfect. In some cases, it fails to recognize the problems and creates the new file with the same error.

It uses, amongst other technologies, the Java text-processing and statistical libraries, Tika and IJava. Features: It's a Java commandlineapplication designed for network administration. You have a limited number of profiles available in profile. You can add and remove nodes, a revoke node, add node paths, or a profile node. It can currently. And also, all the icons are easy to use. Drop Folder is a fast and flexible task manager for quick operations for files and folders on your desktop.

You can also define combinations of folder actions and use them a universal task. Without a doubt, this is the absolute best software available to replace the original Game Boy Advance, if you still wish to use your original GBA for a while.

Desktop Wallpaper and Photo Slideshow Creator is desktop application designed to help you make a slideshow from your photo collection on your PC or Mac computer. This wonderful application offers you different slideshow types and a lot of different effects which you can combine with your own photos, as well as different transition effects that you can apply to create some amazing wallpaper Link Building Manager is an award-winning web software that allows you create and monitor all your links.

Link Building Manager helps you. Still, Sofonica Folder Soldier lacks configurable options, but in most cases, users are only looking to lock some folders while leaving the rest untouched. Version History 1. More configurable options.

Added a default folder to block access to. There are two other property pages Icons page and edit permissions button ; When a object is clicked on, a new property page called Name, description, size, date, media type or flags appear. Clicking on the other property page Eg. Icons leads to a different. For adding more features, human-readable lists and tables can be generated using the program. Once the conversion is complete, they are added into zipped files named jar.

Apart from recovering individual files from one presentation, it can also handle multiple instances of recovery. You can recover as many PowerPoint presentations as your hard drive has enough space. Easy and efficient PowerPoint recovery benefits below. Convenient All that you need is only to download the free trial version and run the recovery on your affected PPT file. You have to just do this action, then wait for the file to be recovered. You don't have to worry about your presentation data getting corrupted.

The accuracy displayed is satisfactory, but more annoying. Given all, a powerful and handy app to consider for your ongoing researches. Browsing through Game Centre reviews for this iOS game in the past week, we found a reasonable amount of bad ratings, mostly for players not used to the game, or they are complaining about not having a way to access the options, or they are saying that the game is too much like World of Warcraft.

This is, in our opinion, because Z. Its intuitive and friendly interface prevents you from getting lost in the program and prevents you from making typing errors. Moreover, you can safely operate the software without leaving any traces in your system registry. Since you can stop using it and forget about it, you can pretty much count on Batch Date Converter 2. It's a simple application that allows you to convert your B.

Requirements Windows — Trial version available Adobe Acrobat Plugin — Dumpsite The most complete tool to test encrypted PDF files and the capability to decrypt them with the best possible keys Tests have been done with the most commonly used as well as with original and special PDF. Radiotime enables a new way to search and directly access your favorite Radio Stations.

The initial version of Radiotime provides an interface with most of the most well-known radio stations. These stations are already registered, but Radiotime can register new stations as well. After registering a station, the first time that you try to play a certain station or station that you have never listened to, you should be redirected to the. Advanced users only.

Both Federer and Djokovic both look like they are slowly dying inside. Djokovic is petrified of being RG challenger, Federer is fighting for the match points on his own, while Djokovic is having all of them given to him. How could he? This version of DCI-P4 has new edition of natural processing video effect which can build new effect on your video.

Today, we are going to see about the new effect. This version can be used real time crop effect to video with Change your video with the real time crop effect. Select effect: excellent new video natural do highlight sharp new video Dazzle new video breathy new video Crystallize new video.

Gesture Shake is a free on-screen keyboard which includes numerous features, such as creative designs, responsive keys, backend storage, and an array of time-saving functions. Taking the standard on-screen keyboard we had seen the moment, this application has two main variations: Gmail and MSN. With the former you can access your email account with the ordinary software keyboard and, in order to be able to work with the application while performing other tasks, it also includes.

Give it a try. You won't regret it. A drug delivery system, as used herein, is any means for delivering one or more drugs into a patient's body. Although trans-dermal drug delivery is an attractive method of delivery compared with. We hope you liked the article on Teleport Exec and have created a more organized network a pleasant experience! Do you have any helpful tips? Feel free to share them with us in the comments section below and we will definitely update the post!

Q: Understanding the difference between the sysfs and procfs I have been researching the differences between these two paths and I have a better understanding now. What do you use both files for? If you need a program to get started, we suggest that you try it out. They may hit their head on the lintel or roof of.

ABC Dummy Server is a free small server written using free software, designed for those who are just beginning the journey in Wi-Fi networking. In addition to that, this program is easy to handle, regardless of user experience. The user interface is modern and responsive, and the intuitive interface helped us copy, open and create documents without doing anything special. With this product, you can create movie folders and ISO images, while the features are pretty versatile.

It displays files on the filesystem in two panels, which can be changed for different perspectives - flat view, tree view, thubmnail view. There will be integrated viewer for text files, HTML, binary files hex , support for FTP, directory synchronization, file splitting and joining, treating of archives like directories, extensive file search, drag and drop file management integration and more.

Take SharpCmd. This tests not only your data access code but also how your application converts the data into the correct business entities. It is currently one of the most popular utilities on the market, plus it comes with some additional Multiply is a multi-purpose utility that can be divided into five different functions on one single interface: backup and restore files, extract from archives, a download and install program, Then hit all the buttons or click within the mouse area which you want to be matched with MIDI data output.

Set Tab, which converts the selected chords. The menu will be replaced with variables listed in parenthesis. Press the Note key corresponding to the of the selected item. Control Tab. It's quite handy to be able to find just what you were looking for a short time ago, and recall how you replaced an incorrect file name. PicName is now in a new format v1.

The old version can be downloaded from the home page. The new version will be available as a free, downloadable evaluation version shortly. During the trial period, use the expiration time for unlocking the key.

At least for week to unlock key. Numpad from the link below for free. All you have to do is run the application once, and the process is done. The app is still in its early stages and has some bugs that you will need to be aware of, but SubMenu Direct could be used as an extremely fast tool when you need to deal with large numbers of sub-menus. For example, there is no option to hide the application's context menu.

Also, it would be nice to be able to edit the application's main menu items and remove the useless ones. I think it's a nice gadget, but I am a bit disappointed with the absence of an option to lock webcam capture, adjust its zoom or show a list of sources.

Web Cam Viewer Windows is a tool that helps you view images from any webcam for 30 days. Apart from this, it can also manage almost every aspect of your MP3 collection and convert them into numerous formats, while you can enjoy your favorite music anytime and anywhere. It's even able to. It comes with a simple look and intuitive interface that anyone can understand in no time. Cons: You are not allowed to password-protect your folders.

System Requirements Note: Activation is needed for installing this utility. External libraries required: nasm, libVapourSynthPlugin. Oracle Database 12c formerly Database 12c is. What's more, the app is actually a multi-platform application that works on Windows XP, Vista, Server and Windows Some gamers might prefer the specific abilities of the Windows version, while serious users will find more features and advanced controls in the multi-platform or Mac version.

Add playlists, set skins, add a custom sound theme, modify the skins and even keep the interface plain and simple — PlayPad is an application that speaks with the manufacturer's intent. Available for Windows XP through Win7 bit Simple and easy to use, PlayPad comes with everything one would expect from a media player of this sort — with all the missing pieces conveniently tucked under the hood.

If you would like to learn more about this player's features and. If you have any questions, you can find the project's official repository in GitHub as well as all the necessary details on the official documentation website. We'd love to hear about your experiences in the comments below. An offline mode is also available. However, you won't be able to use it for extended periods of time without data services available, so you'll have to decide if it is enough of a hold in your life.

With all the features mentioned above, why would you not want to try it out? There's an estimated 30 million downloads and active users, which is the only clue to what success will. Among others, the following functions are implemented: - Heat flow rate calculation. The program offers the following features: Name the image filename that the encoded images will be saved to create a file reference to it Search and replace image references in the CSS Generate a compressed version of the CSS, for easy copying with the iOptiv library if the original CSS file is large.

The code behind this application has been written and released as Open Source under the GPL for details see the readme. Support for rfc and rfc is currently in development. Check Clock Alert for PC! Features: Blocking websites and programs Allows the user to create a list with domains or items, that should be blocked e. Allows the user to block access to websites by inserting valid websites URLs, or to specify individual programs that can be accessed by others.

Allows the user to block access to programs by specifying the name of the program, or the system executable of the program. Mooshakaku 1. Mooshakaku File Storage, which is like CrypticStorage, will be able to store your files, and much more. The application then scans the flat structure and outputs the results.

It will create all of the necessary genre symlink folders and place them the desired genre links into the appropriate locations. Once this completes you can copy the genre symlinks or the flat structure to a different location and use them in a different way. If you need a powerful and easy-to-use barcode application for creation and design of printed barcodes with multiple variations, use this tool now. Chm flight simulator is the free, cross platform plane sim.

Its the definitive plane sim with the best training guide available for the student, pilot and general aviation enthusiast. With a huge simulator feature set, the navigation, maneuvering and flying community calls it the best on the market. Chm flight simulator x64 works great in most PC configurations, making it a really good choice for an office or home user.

Using Coupons at Checkout is simple, just add a selected item to the shopping basket, wait until it appears on the list and click on it. You'll be led to a website with the coupon code. With Coupons at Checkout you don't have to waste time searching for code anymore.

The plugin is compatible with all major browsers. What is Open for a Product? We have built the plugin from the ground up to offer you the best experience possible while shopping.. Is there an IPAD like program for windows? April 16, Lynda how do i get a command like ipconfig for windows. Hook API SDK is not the only hooking tool with a similar functionality, but it includes more features and is multi-language.

It allows fast and easy product launch, price change, journal update and even when journal cannot be updated due to a system crash or a power off. During the last decade the facility has spent a total of GBP8M on infrastructure, installation and the subsequent cost of running the facility. Whilst the science staff at DST are multi-disciplinary, it is clear that. Vampire Days-a True Darkness is Burning! Vampire Days - a True Darkness is Burning!

If you still have to wait, enjoy the 20 minutes preview. Look at the preview screen here http. The program even allows you to make it auto-shut down at a set time. Icon Clock is the best app on Windows for various reasons: it has been implemented with a modern and clean design, and has some useful options.

There are no annoying ads, and paid versions are not necessary. An extremely polished concept makes it one of my favorite recommendations on the Windows Store. Developer: Fibonaccio Studios Price: 4. The information is updated daily.

The same situation is applied for those who need to buy gifts for people they don't really know too well, which, in the end, proves to be time-consuming and nerve-wracking. The Internet is filled with multiple solutions for various professions. One of the applications that journalists could use is the ComposeIt! It's packed with lots of tools for composing text, from scratch up until using templates. It even allows users to publish the articles to social media sites, such as Instagram, Tumblr, Facebook, Twitter and more.

Using templates for quick composing Once you open this app you will need to pick the web address where you want to post the articles you. Disclaimer: The information presented here is for free education purpose and does not support silent install and registration.

The app can also generate polyhedra directly, introducing difficult number of vertices in just a matter of seconds. The polyhedra rendering is handled via OpenGL. With this excellent driver, you are ensured to enjoy the full capabilities of your high-end video card. It will also improve the graphical nuances of each program running on your PC.

One of the most essential aspects of playing games is the quality of the graphical. Disclaimer: This watch is NOT a toy watch. It should be treated like any other timepiece. It does not work in open space. Propellerhead Reason is no longer free, but you can still find a free version of it at Reason.

It lets you mix your own beats, sequences, sounds or Effects as you like. Ad Partners You have not yet voted on this story. If you believe this story deserves to be voted on, please only vote once, using the icon below. If you agree, then simply hit the Vote button. If you don't Well, either way, it's fine. We appreciate everyone's opinion. With the handwritten Kanji input method, words can be typed very quickly.

For example, you can obtain a list of synonyms for the word idam by typing idi into the Kanji input box. Those are the things I learned from Thredd so far and, I suppose, this is the best option one can get to find content on a specific site that is similar to what others are talking about on Reddit. Update: I did not mention that Thredd is still in its experimental phase. However, it appears to already be in a beta phase, so you might be able to get it installed right now.

This utility is extremely reliable and provides all the features one would require, but it is not known for having a flashy user interface. The ClampPro application is a bit of a niche product. It generally focuses on duplicating, PDF conversion, image cataloging, and backup, but it does everything quite well. Most of the interface is filled with the ClampPro logo, giving it a regal, polished appearance. At this point, this useful and reliable tool is probably the only choice you will get if you don't have a desktop shortcut already set on your desktop or other alternatives.

Multi-Gold Loader is freeware that is absolutely safe to use and free of any virus. It works without any special installations and is compatible with Windows XP and newer version. Multi-Gold Loader requires free space of about MB on your computer for operation. No need to wait! Get it now for free! Target Drives in a Spin! With powerful recovery functions, this data recovery software will help you recover data from physical damaged disks as well as logical broken disks.

Also, it is an excellent way to recover. If you live in one of the countries where Microsoft Enterprise is available, you are probably familiar with Home, Work, and Other on the Microsoft organisation portal. Work is the online workstations and devices that are set up on your Microsoft Enterprise environment. Other is the points of interaction between the two. Our findings are consistent with the role of NO in M1 cell inhibition [ pone.

However, the tool does not support user-friendly features such as the ability to choose default target location, so you may need to copy files before conversion so you have a backup. After all, Portable Breevy is a software suite worth trying out if you have to spare some resources for a program. The Mets currently have only one closer in Robert Gsellman.

While the Mets could manage with one closer, Youkilis Reyes is still no closer. Code-name: Snap Schedule. What can you do, if you have a very good acting ability, an analytical mind and you are. As for being light-weight, it takes only about a minute or so to load and save one list.

Custom filtering - Enable to disable the filter option on both the client and server window. By default, the filter is enabled. Support for zooming and offsetting the direction mask Smarter drop down list: You can choose X,Y or XY coordinates in the client window; and the coordinates can be saved as a dictionary in all the other Windows. If the departure seemed sudden, just you wait. The Canadian government has spent 20 per cent of its entire budge on its controversial security and traffic project.

Apparently, economists said the move would all but eliminate the need for a bridge and an undersea tunnel for a final link on a tunnel. The concerns over any government funding a bridge and underwater tunnel came after the region had been weighing ways to reduce the costly traffic of commuters who now simply continue to cross the bridge and tunnel with. A portable version makes it possible to do the test on more computers, so you could try out mediums too, and even replicate the scenario for use cases such as replication or data backup.

Imbue Technologies Michael Casaleta, President Imbue Technologies is an innovative company, developing innovative educational solutions. Emports are subtracted from the line level in order to individually determine the desired reverb level for each emulated sound. You need to be able to amplify a signal that is lower than the line level when the line level is set to zero or ground. In practice this means that the output will have far more high frequencies than the input because the input signal cannot be detected.

In order to tame this. The QR code generated by the user is merged with the system clipboard. If it is a text file, you can also remove the extension in the right click menu. The shortcuts and settings pages also include a series of conditional and alternate choices, so the editor offers lots of useful options for any experienced user. Those interested in code can collaborate with their projects using function and function parameters.

Besides, any webpage can be previewed in a local install program and then uploaded to remote server for viewing purposes. A new study of disgraced former British spy Christopher Steele has revealed that he continued to receive money from the FBI, and at the same time, worked under the. This is not just a screensaver, it also serves to organize your desktop icons. An excellent representation of the ultimate space race between these two cars.

How to install Use only. You can install these. Army Chief General Bipin Rawat on Friday said that the Kashmir issue can be solved only by dialogue and agreed to it on the mediatorial role played by the United States.

As I made clear earlier, you cannot separate the problem of Jammu and Kashmir from the problem of Indian Army. HuetWorks also offers Muirfin software which allows you to create panels, act as the chine layout or the material folder. It is easier to use than HuetWorks, and gives you more options to do what you want.

I went ahead and purchased Muirfin instead and told HuetWorks that I had done so. For a "set up" of their software package, you need to go over the manual. It is designed so that you answer the Questions,. The program comes in supported languages at the time of first publishing so you can use these for your puzzles if you like. The program fully recognizes the word structure thus no part of the word to be the word will create a problem, but some languages may produce odd errors such as 'text text' not being a word.

This is achieved by using a technique called mouse-move magic. This service will respond with a customised response to a client question. Vista Visual Master is used and recommended by many people. Small and fast to use most modifications require only 30 seconds to add, remove or move shortcuts , easy to use, Vista Visual Master brings you a fresh, unique and personal touch to your home computer. Rescue Fone allows you to rescue contacts on iPhone devices iPhone 3 and later from iTunes Backup or exported contact database.

This gives much convenience to restore contacts to iPhone directly, instead of restoring it from iTunes Backup or exported contact database. Snapshot is exactly a snapshot. Image of a computer screen on a mobile phone or on a computer, as easily as a picture is taken. Created by professional Mac developer Risus Software, the technology was originally developed for the.

Conveniently, the application can be used even on a tablet or mobile device. Furthermore, Advocate Manual provides you with a highly powerful tool to make a decision on a legal problem, lawsuit, hearing or case. With this feature, you can save the time you previously spent waiting for court orders and court decisions, which usually can take a lot of time.

It's a web-based converter that doesn't let you preview the converted image before you execute it. As I mentioned, I find that can sometimes be a good thing, but some users get errors and it will also erase their originals if you don't confirm they are ok. If you have better options,. Sync is actively developed and supported by a team of talented developers, bug hunters and beta testers.

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Pelofsky, J. Accuses Megaupload of Copyright Infringement'. Retrieved Mame na krku Mega prusvih'. It is a matter of the geography of those practices too. Piracy has always been a matter of place of territory and geopolitics as well as time. However, high box office revenues do not necessarily mean that a movie is financially successful.

The whole system of the film industry is then based on the interdependence of all stakeholders and interested parties whose one and only goal is to increase their own revenues. ISBN That said motivational factors for moviegoers are well explored and analyzed.

On the other hand, surprisingly, there has been very little research analyzing the factors influencing would-be customers to take part in digital piracy. Thus, this study at least partially proposes some potential factors that could motivate and influence individuals to engage in piracy activities. Nevertheless, the suggested factors work as a certain starting point for further research as they are not the objective of this paper. Moreover, digital piracy presents another economic problem; the stakeholders in the film industry spend sizable volumes of resources on protecting their goods and eliminating piracy.

Therefore, the availability of illegitimate digital distribution channels represents a challenge for managers in the film industry, especially when original movies are uploaded to the Internet before or during their legitimate theatrical release.

Moreover, managers solve the piracy-related problems ad-hoc. In principle, the audio-visual industry performs corrective actions but undertakes very little preventive ones. The crucial managerial challenge is to solve the linked problems — decreasing admissions and revenues, and increase of antipiracy costs.

However, the key is to find a balance between the amount invested into antipiracy activities, and the beneficial effect it brings. The history of copyright is largely a history of struggles against market innovations, often linked to the emergence of new technologies16, and the file sharing represents such innovation, which the theatrical market was not ready for.

Moreover, digital piracy represents a behavioral problem "Why do people pirate? Even though some theories claim that piracy has positive or insignificant impact21 downloading of pirated content does not represent an effect of cannibalization on theatrical market; it can also work as a complement to purchase, or downloading to get to know the product22 ; the majority of scientists agree that piracy does affect negatively23 the box office revenues.

However, the magnitude of the effect varies. Working paper, University of Texas at Dallas. Balazs, B. Ma, L. Hennig-Thurau, T. Therefore, antipiracy enforcement represents costs of doing business. Therefore, the piracy of the imports represents a welfare gain in the form of expanded access to valuable goods. To my knowledge, there have been only a couple of academic papers using system dynamics to study piracy. Management science offers the appealing base to study phenomenon of digital piracy as this problem has not yet been fully covered by this view.

Management itself comprises a range of strategies and practices used in organizations to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizations as processes or practices focused on continuous improvement of the organization.

However, as far as I know, collaborating stakeholders do not use methods proposed by knowledge management. Moreover, there is no sign of an established computational system dynamic model for strategic policies — computational simulation supporting managerial decision-making. Danaher, B. Wellesley College, Boston, Massachusetts. Lewisville, Institute for Policy Innovation, Texas.

There is also subjective evaluation of qualitative factors or individual attitude towards the risk. The thesis deals with knowledge management and system dynamic modeling on which principles and approaches proposes a novel methodology supporting the strategic management decision-making. The main benefit of the knowledge-based models is their enormous ability to reflect various aspects and numerous characteristics of the real problem scenarios, while being user-friendly yet meaningful and interactive.

All this shall positively motivate and stimulate the managers stakeholders at solving the management problem. Proposed novel methodology enables the construction of new strategic planning. Employed data was collected from public sources, which was relatively simple task but gathering data from the commercial sources gained information and knowledge with kind help of representatives of certain stakeholders was a challenge.

However, once the extraction of information and knowledge from the stakeholders was successfully processed, critical question shall be asked, how reliable the data is? Simply put, cooperation with the stakeholders also brought certain negative aspect as they project their own interests into knowledge release.

Nevertheless, I dare to say, that for the thesis purposes — creation of the exemplary novel model for supporting management decision-making — the model can answer the important questions and management problems. Usage of the model can bring the faster and more accurate answers within the defined problem or can serve as a fresh inspirational work for processes of problem solution.

Elimination of digital film piracy comprises diverse claims of separate responsibilities and different approaches. The model simulates experiments and forecasts market development based on the scenarios of current market settings, industry-based administration, government-based administration and a mixture of the last two.

Nevertheless, with certain modifications, it could be easily applied to other markets or countries. For example, theatrical market in Slovakian Republic has the same specifics, and the model could be filled with their data; providing a methodology and support for managerial decision making at Slovakian theatrical market. Investigation of the defined problem of digital piracy related to the Czech theatrical industry represents a challenging task.

Due to complexity, coherence relationships, some disordered parts of the system, certain restrictions and simplifications, as in every economic model, had to be performed. For example, the Czech theatrical industry consists of numerous companies but if the system describes a particular stakeholder e.

Furthermore, certain businesses and entities needed to be omitted from the system as well e. Some other parameters could not be incorporated as well, as there is no unbiased data or sufficient information provided, e. In other words, during the conceptualization phase, it was needed to set the boarders for the model, and some aspects had to be left aside not being incorporated. I am aware that any kind of boarder brings limitations to the model itself narrowing the reality.

Moreover, this paper will not discuss international copyright differences as they differ in each country, I will leave that to legal scholars. Nevertheless, being fully aware of the limits, I still believe that the proposed model represents realistic behavior. I understand that this might lead to generalization and simplifications but I highly believe that the model provides realistic outputs of predictions related to the whole system and not to a particular stakeholder.

In the second chapter, the reader gets to know the potential effects of digital piracy, involved stakeholders, digital piracy within the Czech industry, behaviors of pirating individuals, and information about the economic development of the theatrical market.

The major part of the paper is Chapter 3, which is focused on the conceptualization phase and computational model. Finally, I understand that the paper is dense and might discourage potential readers. The film industry is an enormous complex of institutions, stakeholders and interested parties and I decided to keep the paper in this form to provide the reader with a view into the intricate theatrical micro-world.

Above and beyond the main aim of this research, was the desire to give potential readers an insight into the Czech theatrical industry with hopes of contributing to changing or influencing the industry to soften the impacts of digital piracy on cinema. Cinema has always represented a certain magic that binds us with reality, even though it is all fake and surrealistic. We all know it is staged but it still fascinates us and affects us emotionally. Cinematography represents the art of speaking the common language to masses, and is understood in the whole world.

The theatrical experience and watching movies on a computer are like apples and strawberries. They are both fruit, but the taste is completely different. The study is based on available literature sources and information on October 1, Other information and resources after that date were not taken into account. Based on the theoretical and practical information of digital motion picture piracy suggest a general decision supporting model that could provide better input for stakeholders' strategic management decision-making.

Create a system dynamics simulation model, apply and validate it in the field of the Czech theatrical industry. In other words, the larger involvement of mutually interrelated intangible and primarily subjective factors, the larger the need for transparent, interactive, knowledge-based managerial techniques and tools. They represent the only category, capable to address all these aspects simultaneously.

The thesis examines various approaches and uses a system dynamics model. Nevertheless, the proposed general model could be combined with the techniques of mathematics, statistics, discrete event simulation or agent modeling. This aspect enables a flexible response to changes in the initial setting conditions. The created model allows nonstationary changes during the simulations. Usage of the model can bring faster and more accurate answers within the defined problem or can serve as a fresh inspirational work for processes of problem solution.

To speak of the thesis itself, there is clearly a room for improvement, yet I hope it still could serve as a helpful threshold for future studies. To my knowledge, there have been only a couple of studies and papers focusing on digital piracy from a system dynamics view. Although digital film piracy is a modern phenomenon, its research is still in its infancy. Firstly, the academic papers focused on music piracy and measuring its impact — especially whether piracy harmed the sales after the introduction of Napster in As the storage capacity, Broadbent penetration and the Internet connection speed increased the behavior interest of the downloading Internet users shifted to different products.

In general, the focus of the academic literature covers the main products, which are pirated and digitally distributed, i. Most of the well-known papers focus on describing the effects of piracy, and all studies served as a theoretical background and inspiration for my paper. The study examined the effect of per capita income, legal enforcement and technology on piracy rates. Results for non-OECD countries suggest that the increase in Internet use coupled with poor copyright enforcement has worsened the piracy.

For OECD countries, on the other hand, the growth in Internet subscriptions has not had a significant effect on piracy rates. As increased broadband penetration might have exposed DVD customers to the beneficial aspects of the Internet — increased information about movies, increased product selection through online retailers, and lower prices, without being exposed to the potentially harmful aspects of the Internet — the increasing availability of pirated content.

Liebowitz reached the same results as well. Studies usually focus on social cognitive models and theories. If piracy is ubiquitous in most parts of the world, it is because these conditions are ubiquitous as well. Moreover, the researchers conclude that media piracy is not likely to be stopped with actions such as Internet disconnections41 or tougher criminal penalties.

The authors believe that piracy is better described as a global pricing problem, and the only way to solve it is by changing the price. Therefore, customers maximize their utility based on the priorities, and the commercial pirates file sharing websites face the same dilemma as the legal industry, how to compete with free. According to the authors, the following factors influence the piracy rate: o Price of the pirated product the costs for obtaining such item o Price of the legal product o Technological difficulties in obtaining the pirated product o Income 38 Idnes.

Valcuji je nove technologie'. New technologies are crushing them] Retrieved Jacobs, R. Network externality, according to them, is a major factor causing the industry loss, not piracy. Their model suggested that declining revenues are at least partly due to factors other than piracy, in particular, competition among the whole entertainment industry, i.

Therefore, piracy may have an impact on sales, but it is not the only factor, and most likely not the most important. Their paper focuses on various articles from the fields of economics, marketing and information systems. For example, the popularity of the movie might affect the likelihood that the movie will be pirated and the likelihood that it will earn a lot in box office revenues.

Ma, Montgomery, Singh and Smith45 The Effect of Pre-Release Movie Piracy on Box-Office Revenue studied the hypothesis of whether pre-release piracy reduces movie box-office sales and whether the higher quality pirated movies positively affect the box office. The following paper deals with digital music piracy. Even though this paper focuses on motion pictures, I believe it is worth mentioning the study "The Effect of File Sharing on Record Sales: An empirical analysis"46, written by Oberholzer-Gee and Strumpf, as it was one of the first papers in the economics literature to look at the impact of piracy on sales.

A dataset of downloads was matched to U. However, their results have been disputed by the recording industry47 and other objections have been raised against48 the study, the work was citied cited during the trial against PirateBay. Economy" consolidated the approach to measure the losses caused by piracy; he estimates the wider impact of piracy on national economies, based on losses to the secondary and tertiary businesses that rely on copyright.

On the other hand, the word of mouth effect represents a positive effect of piracy; the viewer spreads information about the movie and this information is obtained by potential customers, and affects their purchase decisions. They also claim that the piracy had no impact on theater attendance, but a strong impact on video rentals and purchases.

Furthermore, the piracy represents a beneficial effect to the national economy; the loss to foreign companies equals a gain for consumers. Within a given country, the piracy of domestic goods is a transfer of income; money saved by consumers for other expenditures. For example, according to Danaher,59 difference between the U. Widespread consensus declares that stronger enforcement will inevitably lower the piracy and increase the revenues of the stakeholders.

Such revenue growth could lead to greater investment in legal markets, support economic growth and jobs creation etc. The customer-focused enforcement relies on the law enforcement and the associated various penalties for providing the pirated content uploading and downloading , copyright awareness and creation of positive customer environment in which they are willing to pay for digital products and avoid the pirated ones.

For example in Taiwan, the copyright law enables the government to take legal actions against the peer-to-peer software providers who enable digital piracy , against the users who take part in the piracy activities, and as well as against the Internet service providers providing the data transfer.

The supply-focused enforcement depends on blocking and deleting the pirated products, shutting down the file-sharing website such as Megaupload , and increasing the technological difficulties of piracy. Table 1 shows examples of customer and supply-focused enforcements. Table 1 Examples of customer and supply-focused enforcement Customer-focused Illegitimate Supply-focused Enforcement Enforcement Blocking of Internet sites providing Law enforcement the pirated content Penalties for providing Removal of pirated content the pirated content uploading from the Internet Penalties for obtaining Shutting down the pirate the pirated content downloading file-sharing websites Copyright awareness Technological difficulties of piracy Source: Own work In general, the customer-focused enforcement tries to lower the demand for pirated good, while the supply-focused enforcement tries to cut the illegitimate distribution channel.

Either way, goal of both strategies is to reduce digital piracy. However, a related question is that, which actions should be chosen and how prioritized? Stakeholders mutually cooperate to reduce piracy, but in the end, their major strategy is to increase their own revenues. To maximize the utility of the stakeholders, it is required to support the management decision- making involving the efficient use of money invested.

Prerequisite for effective decision is high-quality inputs and tools processing all gathered data. Quality data reflects the knowledge about the behavior of the whole system, evaluation of the economic efficiency and feasibility. The aim of this study is to create a computational knowledge-based model supporting the decision-making in the stage of policy proposal.

It also criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control, whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself. Nevertheless, no matter what viewpoint is employed, the crucial question is "Who shall be responsible and administer the solution to eliminate digital piracy? The following types represent different administration in eliminating piracy. Proper usage of this model in the stage of policy proposals could eliminate the deficiencies.

Model is used for scenarios identification, forecasting simulations and evaluation of the outcomes. The main aim of the general model is to answer the question — "Which administration is the most and least efficient? Another main target group to use the model is consultant companies collaborating with public authorities in preparation of strategic public policy documents related to piracy and the Czech market.

The model is primarily intended for the Czech market and its special relationship among the participants. However, with certain modifications, it could be easily applied to other markets or countries. The current literature on movie piracy is scarce and this paper contributes to the growing literature on this topic. Then make it small. Pretend it's an island out in the ocean. Can you see it? Goyer, Screenwriter 1. Research Methodology The paper focuses on studying defined problem and proposing new methodology approaching the problem with developed original computational model and performed simulations.

Research methodology builds upon general research methodology,67 which is suitable for informal, naturalistic and qualitative research that is characterized by a lack of appropriate methods; the model identifies the basic steps taken by a researcher in order to solve certain problems within research activities. Mitroff, I. Bury, A. Conceptualization The first stage of solving the problem is via the conceptualization activity that leads to build of a conceptual model.

Conceptual model provides the broader definition of a particular issue that is under investigation. Variables used for definition of the problem, are determined, as well as the level boarder of the problem. In other words, setting of the level from which the research will examine see the variables i. It is crucial to obtain necessary data and information from involved stakeholders regarding the relationships, institutions, financial flows, processes, interests, limits and other aspects related to the problem.

Nevertheless, the amount of gathered data and information should be big but also reasonable compared with the cost of obtaining it. ISBN: Fotr, J. McNair, B. Berard, C. ISBN: , pp. Finally, a combination of partial knowledge obtained from stakeholders leads to a formulation of a comprehensive understanding of the problem.

In order to achieve this, it is crucial to motivate them to share their knowledge, which, in a real world, not many are willing to do. The formalization of a comprehensive knowledge means that gathered data, information and partial knowledge are arranged in certain order, i. Lane, D. Casual loop diagram diagram of causal relationships is represented by a directed graph that visualizes how interrelated variables affect one another.

The diagram consists of a set of nodes representing the variables connected together. The relationships between these variables, represented by arrows, are labeled as positive or negative. Reinforcing loops are associated with exponential increases or decreases. Balancing loops are associated with reaching a plateau. To perform quantitative analysis, it is needed to transform it into the diagram of levels and flows. Such transformation is usually performed by using software applications.

Along with graphic design, a system of differential equations is created. Modeling Conceptual model phase is followed by the phase of modeling that aims to define and establish a scientific model. Such model includes a set of quantitative and qualitative logical relations in a simplified picture of the real world system.

However, the knowledge and skills needed to implement the solutions differs from the knowledge needed to build the mathematical model. Rivett, P. Such models enable81 the user policy-maker set various scenarios, setup the initial parameters and simulate the experiments. The conceptualization determines the kinds of modeling constructs that will be used in the representation domain, i.

A certain degree of suboptimal solutions can be achieved through sensitivity analysis and scenarios analysis. Problem-solvers and decision-makers operate in dynamic, non-stationary environment in which a variety of nonlinear dependencies occur. Conventional techniques of system decomposition87 allow the transformation of the original problem to a set of simple ones but only under restrictions and simplifications leading to a certain deformation of reality and loss of transparency of the original assignment.

In the phase of scenarios planning, various policies and strategies are executed. Once the variables are set, the simulation can proceed. Simulation itself is a computational solution of the problem; numerical solution of differential equations. System Dynamics The approach of system dynamics is to understand the behavior of complex system over time as various internal feedback loops and time delays affect the behavior of the whole system.

System dynamics applies to computer simulation to help to learn about dynamic complexity and the sources of policy resistance, and provide more effective policy suggestions. During the exploration of the structure itself, one can determine its behavior in a certain period.

Validation and Feedback Validation is an evaluation of the rate to which scientific model corresponds to the real system. Comparing the model to the real system shall be performed repeatedly, until it reflects all essential aspects of reality. Results from the simulations are compared with the behavior of the real system. Validation primarily tests the functional characteristics of the model and correctness of generated outputs. Simulation results are compared with real world data, and in case of significant deviations, there is a need to debug the model — individual parameters are adjusted to meet the reality of the system as far as possible.

Moreover, discussions with Boston Mayor led professor Forrester to write Urban Dynamics as a result of their debates on the feasibility of modeling broader social problems. Forrester', Waltham: Pegasus Communications 1- Forrester and the History of System Dynamics', U. Department of Energy 94 Fotr J. No positive proof is conceptually possible for any theory or model but only a degree of hope and confidence on the validity of a model.

There are also no universal standards for comparing the validity of models constructed for different purposes. A model is an imperfect representation of the reality, and is valid if it serves as a useful tool for decision making. The solution shall be reviewed by the relevant stakeholders and interested parties, i. The process among conceptual model, scientific model and the solution can be repeated to achieve improvements in the solutions.

Benefits of Proposed Approach In my opinion, management science offers the appealing base to study phenomenon of digital piracy for, as the literature review indicates, this problem has not yet been fully covered by this view. Moreover, there is no sign of an established computational system dynamic model for strategic policies creation and managerial decision-making.

This chapter has introduced an approach to creation and validation of knowledge models. The main benefit of the knowledge-based model is their enormous ability to reflect various aspects and numerous characteristics of the real problem scenarios. The major benefit of the proposed approach is the visual form, being user-friendly yet meaningful and interactive.

Grada, Czech Republic. We make money to make more movies. Digital Film Piracy: Theoretical Framework The Internet network has undergone massive development as users who initially only passively consumed information started to directly influence and later even run the network.

Unauthorized use of copyrighted data has become massive; it is a modern era phenomenon. The currently available technologies make the infringement very easy, while the prosecution of an individual user is almost impossible. How much it gains? Which option is the most efficient? The mangers cannot also grasp a unified theory or tool, which can solve the problems of audio-visual industry in an efficient way.

Digital Piracy Piracy is described as the ubiquitous, increasingly digital practices of copying that fall outside the boundaries of copyright law. Piracy has never had a stable legal definition and is almost certainly better understood as a product of enforcement debates than as a description of specific behavior. The history of copyright is largely a history of struggles against market innovations, often linked to the emergence of new technologies.

Cyberlockers, Peer-to-peer see chapter 2. The emergence of cloud-based media services and their fusion with local storage promises to accelerate this decline of the personal collection. Karaganis, J. He also claims that the movie piracy business was transformed by the supply of cheap DVD players and burners, which resulted in an increased in both the supply of and the demand for pirated DVDs.

He also believes that enforcement has played only a minor role in comparison to larger structural factors. However, the BSA agency, which measures software piracy, relies on the small and stable number of packaged software applications installed on an average computer. The BSA estimates the total installed software base in a country and compares that number to legal sales.

The difference between the two is attributed to piracy. This type of model has no counterpart in the film industry though. In part, file sharing fulfils a demand that is driven by lack of purchasing power and file-sharing sites meet other consumer needs. What is more, file sharing may drive additional consumption in other markets, e.

Moreover, the popularity of the movie might affect the likelihood that movie is pirated and the likelihood that it will earn a lot in box office revenues as well. James Cameron. Substitution Effect If a would-be consumer watches the pirated version a movie, such a person may be less likely to pay to watch it again in the theater, as the incremental value of watching a movie a second time may be lower than the first viewing.

Therefore, this cannibalization effect, would suggests a reduction in box office sales. For example, when John Gantz, research director at the IDC, was asked about the impact of high Western software prices on piracy in developing countries, he suggested that possibly only one in ten unauthorized copies represented a lost sale. Beneficial Effect As was mentioned previously, there are various effects of piracy, some with a positive effect, e. The viewer of the pirated version, after seeing the movie, might discuss it with friends, express positive opinions on the motion picture and share the information over the Internet with friends, acquaintances or large groups of people with similar interests.

Therefore, unlike the substitution effect, the word-of-mouth effect does not have a clear directional influence on box office sales. A certain consumer surplus is brought by the piracy effect. First, domestic piracy may well impose losses on specific industrial sectors, but these are not losses to the larger national economy.

Within a given country, the piracy of domestic goods is a transfer of income, not a loss. Money saved by consumers on a theater visit or DVD will not disappear but rather be spent on other things, such as food, other forms of entertainment, business expenses etc.

It increases the markets for entertainment goods, which contribute to growth but add little to productivity, and still further in countries that import most of their audiovisual goods. Moreover, according to his study, he claims that in cases of imported intellectual property, legal sales represent an outflow of revenue from the national economy. Even the report "Building a Digital Economy: The Importance of Saving Jobs in the EU's Creative Industries" claims that it is important to consider the proportion of local and foreign pirated products.

However, there are no significant data for statistical measurement. Karaganis thinks that the European countries that are mainly importers of intellectual property, should realize a net welfare benefit from audiovisual piracy. Substitution effect clearly decreases domestic film box office revenues. One can use it for something else entirely or can see a different foreign movie substitute foreign movie "A" with movie "B" or see a domestic film.

The Figure 6 shows the ratio of theatrical releases according to country. Therefore, piracy represents a welfare gain. Czech Cinematography Report 2. Anti-piracy Strategies Efficient problem-solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and decision making is enabled through knowledge categorization.

Authors claim that illegitimate distribution does not generate revenues for copyright holders but it creates market opportunities for other businesses within Stands for word-of-mouth effect Hron, J. The Table 3 presents a modified version of their work. Table 3 Piracy Solving Strategies Technological Revenue Knowledge Policing and Prevention Capture Generation Enforcement Reproducibility The harm caused of digital media Piracy provides no Too much piracy Problem by piracy is not makes piracy too return on investment goes unpunished understood easy Revenue-sharing DRM tools, Identification technologies to make watermarking, Measures of the and Service unlicensed use fingerprinting extent of piracy apprehension of profitable for rights etc.

To make piracy public opinion; to Strategy advertising markets To create new harder achieve legal and on the back of piracy revenue policy change streams Source: Lobato, R. Better knowledge of the factors that drive film pirates will help to develop a targeted strategy to fight the illegal acts; as well as the possibility for new and valuable distribution methods and revenue streams. Even Danaher el at. Legal Framework The movie industry includes several different groups, each with their own perspectives and motivations; and all operating in and according to copyright and a legal framework, except of course for the participants breaking the copyright law.

In an example of simplified division of the main groups and their interactions, the film producer and the film distributor represent one group, which delivers the final product into theaters Theater exhibitor. The government provides all parties with legal framework and law enforcement; thereby differentiating between legal and illegal activity related to motion pictures. Anti-Piracy agencies increase the copyright awareness in order to minimize the piracy.

Stakeholders of Film Industry The filmmaking process is divided into several sub-stages. The earliest stage is pre-production which consists of all necessary acquisitions, staffing and organization needed before starting the real production process. The production stage is simply about making filming the movie itself. The post-production stage is to finalize, edit, modify or re-shoot if necessary the movie that is later distributed in theaters.

Executive Producer and Financial Supporter A movie producer oversees and delivers a film project to the film studio Many film producers also have competency in other fields as directors, screenwriters or actors. The producer is often actively involved throughout all major phases of the filmmaking process.

The executive producer can also be a person representing a financial investor in a film project, such as a film studio or a distributor, but who is not directly involved in the day-to-day production. Ministry of Culture is an umbrella body for the established agencies, and has a direct influence on the Czech film culture. The approved movie budget covers the process of production, payments for staffing, distribution, marketing and exhibition of the work.

Figure 8 Film Budget Source: Own work A film studio has its own privately owned studio facilities that are used for making movies; studio is handled by the production company. Available from www. Detailed information about basic film production costs can be seen at Appendix 3 Czech Film — Production Costs. Film Distributor A film distributor is a company or an individual responsible for the marketing of a film. The distributor may set the release date and the method by which a film is to be exhibited or made available for viewing — directly to the public either theatrically or for home viewing DVD, video-on-demand, download, television programs through broadcast syndication etc.

A limited distributor may deal only with particular products, such as DVDs or Blu-ray, or may act in a particular country or market. Sam Mendes. MGM Theater Exhibitor The theater exhibitor is the owner of the cinema who exhibits the movie and collects the box office revenues.

Such revenues are calculated according to movie attendance and ticket price. The Union has been established for the protection of copyright and related rights pertaining to audiovisual work. Its activities include copyright protection, legal actions against copyright infringements, educational lectures to increase copyright awareness, and cooperation with public authorities and other institutions etc. The union also participates in raids and inspections, assists in further investigations and ensures the destruction of seized goods.

The organizations participate in the development of various technological tools that make video recording so called "camcording" more difficult. Such theatre technology blocks the signal of the camera and it enables authorities to track the time and origin of the illegal recorded copy.

Uploader and Downloader The Table 4 shows the comparison of legal and illegal Internet activities. Although this paper studies only motion pictures, I have also added also the other types of products to show the differences. There are various possibilities how one can download the files. Moreover, downloading itself does not have to be an illegal activity. Copyright laws and regulations differ regarding the upload and download activity of various products. For example the downloading of copyrighted software that is not distributed via retail channels, and in most cases is cracked, is always an illegal activity.

Laws and regulations also differ from country to country, and software or Internet tools that are used for downloading are an important factor for legality recognition. Downloading means to receive data into a local system from a remote system or to initiate such a data transfer. Examples of a remote system from which a download might be performed are through a web server, FTP server, email server, or other similar systems.

This activity always requires the consent of the copyright holder. Communication to the public is one of the property rights of the author, and only the author or other authorized copyright holders can use the work. Without this consent, the usage is illegal. Offered motion picture products usually vary in regards to audio and video quality.

However, in general, uploading a copyrighted product whilst not having special permission is an illegal act. Uploading represents the sending of data from a local system to a remote system such as a server or another client with the intent that the remote system should store a copy of the data transferred, or the initiation of such a process. Internet Data Transfer Options The Internet is represented by various tools and websites from which one can movie products download from or upload to.

The following pages characterize such options of websites and networks that might lead to copyright infringement. Data storage servers are the websites on which users can upload data that is easily downloadable by others, e. Ulozto, Czshare or Hellshare. However, UGC style can work on a portion of a website as the majority of content can be prepared by the web administrators. According to Tuma, such activities, according to Copyright Law, are already considered as copyright infringement.

Streaming Movies Websites — It is an illegal act if an owner of a website does not own a license or does not pay regular fees to the copyright owner, to exhibit movies. Beck, Czech Republic. Such networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers. The torrent webpage gathers information of the torrents Bittorrents to download.

Such BitTorrent software protocol works on principle of peer-to-peer file sharing that is used for distributing data over the Internet. Downloading a file from a single source server as described in the previous paragraph , the BitTorrent protocol allows users to join a several hosts to download and upload from each other simultaneously.

Therefore, the main difference is that downloader becomes an uploader at the same time. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. File Hosting Service also known as cyberlocker is an Internet hosting service to host user files. Users can upload files that could then be accessed over the Internet by the same user or possibly by other users, after a right password is provided.

The file storage services are aimed at individuals providing them storage for personal backup, file access, or file distribution. As mentioned above, potential users can upload their files and share them publicly or keep them password-protected. The most common is RapidShare and HotFile. Why are they considered music pirate tool? Websites gather information about uploaded motion pictures, music of any format , software, games etc. Revenues from such sites are generated from Internet banners, advertisements and e-shop with various marketing products.

Although the catalog sites are mainly for registered users, an average-skilled Internet user can still gain access to password-protected pages via Google. Knowing the correct movie title and expected name of the data storage site e.

Piracy and File-sharing in the Czech Republic The Czech Antipiracy Union claims that audiovisual piracy has been continuously growing since the year The piracy rate is based on existing market data and does not incorporate growth rates if piracy did not exist. However, as was mentioned before, the figures could not be verified. However, there are no sufficient data to support or disprove this claim, as the whole market consists of film and music, box office revenues, DVD sales, rentals etc.

Still, I would say that a loss of million CZK in is a much-exaggerated figure. Behaviors Related to Piracy 2. Evidence for the existence of this drive can be found in the fact that when an anticipated movie arrives at cinemas, bootlegged version appears online soon. Completionist users will go out of their way to download rare films, but do not necessarily seek new experiences like Novelty Compulsion describes.

The Economic Expected Outcome factor will detect a possibly integral point in the decision to download; the subjective notion of the downloader that he or she is saving money by downloading. Social Expected Outcome is altered slightly to reflect the fact that movies are social events for many consumers.

While many downloaders may watch movies on their own, the social environment might exert an influence over the way the behavior is perceived. A social milieu that has a negative view on downloading may change the attitude of a downloader, causing them to download less. This factor measures the attitude the individual has regarding the downloading of movies, and how he projects this to his environment. Moral Justification is closely linked to Descriptive Norms because it attempts to measure the moral attitude an individual has to the behavior.

It concerns the beliefs the individual holds regarding the ethicality of downloading. All factors integrate into a model to explain why certain users download more than others do. Attitude towards Piracy According to report "Discovering behaviors and attitude related to pirating content" performed by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the main reason to pirate is the price.

Many customers committing online piracy are motivated by the free content. However, other factors influence the users as well, such as earlier access to content, a perception that "everyone is doing it", and the proliferation of ad-support website that offer free content.

Customers express concern about potential piracy pitfalls though. They are aware of the poor quality of some pirated content and the possibility of downloading a virus or facing legal trouble. Pirate Profile Various studies gathered data to identify the profile of an average Internet pirate. Using several studies, the Czech pirate does not differ from the worldwide data.

Based on the data, the average Internet pirate is years old, male, lives in an urban area, is a student at high school, and is mainly interested in movies. However, pornography and TV shows are just a certain sub-genre of the motion pictures industry. Factors for Download and Upload The following chapters built on my earlier findings of factors for uploading and downloading of pirated film products.

Proposed factors might influence the user in various levels and strength; and one or many factors can apply at the same time. The following motivational factors are strictly based on research of users and network behavior over the Internet. LAN networks and any other domestic Internet networks. Moreover, some individuals or groups deliver products recognizable in the whole pirate world, e. The bonus points can be redeemed for various marketing products or website credit for downloading.

Therefore, people are directly motivated to upload data in order to collect the bonus points. Behavior of Downloader and Uploader The scenario on the Figure 12 describes the hypothetical behavior of downloader and uploader.

Person "A" hereinafter referred to as uploader buys a ticket for the theater showing. This example individual opts to record it even though the movie can be obtained from other sources, e. Hotfile n. Uploading of the pirated product is shown as Step 3. The "Internet websites" icon on shown Figure 12 represents any Internet data transfer options see chapter 2. The uploader addresses a person "B", the downloader for simplicity, it represents all possible users via personal Internet webpages, Internet forums, website comments, or webpage threads etc.

Step 4. In this instance, i. The downloader is influenced not only by the uploader but also by personal motivational factors Economic, Supply, Attitude and Other factors to download the pirated product Step 5. The above stated motivational factors and influences then cause that downloader to actually download the product from the Internet Step 6. Several motivational factors, e. Recommendation factors, Anti-regime attitude etc. For simplicity the interactions discussed above do not picture the possibility of the downloader downloading the product and then uploading it back on the Internet under a new name.

Such situations are likely to be very common, as the downloaders are also driven by the motivational factors applicable to uploading, especially Profit factors. Let us also assume that the above-mentioned influences and recommendations of the downloader might be either positive or negative. The downloader then tries to influence the person "C" to download the movie Step 8 , or to influence the person "D" not to download the movie Step 9.

Theatrical Market This chapter is to provide the reader an insight into the theatrical industry with focus on the markets' development international and Czech. Czech Theatrical Market Collected data for the following chapter deals with year — I have chosen the years as they provide the latest data in integrated the whole.

I have also chosen only such data that has solid explanatory power, and is easily understood. For more information about Czech financial support of cinematography, see Appendix 22 Czech Cinematographic Support. The main contributing countries to international revenues are the following in bil. USD — Japan 2. Average Theater Ticket Prices The average price of theater ticket since year is constantly growing.

Similar prices as in the Czech Republic are in neighboring countries of Slovakia and Poland. The lowest average price is in Lithuania 3. More information about ticket prices and comparison with the average European prices can be found at Appendix 23 Theater Tickets and Appendix 21 International Box Office Revenues. Furthermore, the possible amount of theater visits declined in -6 and , which was caused by the major increase of the price of the ticket and the decline of the annual increase of the income.

The number is calculated as income divided by average theater ticket price and represents an amount of "How many times a person could visit a theater if the whole income was spent on theater tickets". Theatrical Release As it was already mentioned in the previous chapters, the digital piracy is highly caused by the window gap between the official mainly American premiere and the domestic premiere.

Moreover, it is important to mention the DVD Blu-ray sale release as well, because the digital pirates can rip the optic disc and upload it to the Internet in high quality. Table 9 shows the difference between the official Hollywood theatrical premiere and the Czech opening date.

Gathered data shows the differences among release dates, e. In general, Czech theater audience has 1 month window from theatrical releases in the USA and other countries while in this time foreign Internet uploaders provide the world with pirated movies with various quality - CAMRip, Telesync, Screener etc.

Theater Admissions The average Czech movies admissions oscillate around In those years, the increase was up to 4. The exceptional years were caused by the successful movies Bathory, respectively, Zeny v pokuseni. Juraj Jakubisko, BontonFilm Jiri Vejdelek, Falcon Box Office Revenues Figure 15 shows that the total box office revenues are constantly growing, except for the years and Figure 15 Box office revenues Source: FilmCenter, Basic statistics of Czech film market; Table 10 and Table 11 show the box office revenues divided according to Czech and foreign movies.

The box office revenues of Czech movies suffered a major decrease in the years and On the other hand, as was stated before, the years and were unusually successful thanks to movie hits, such as "Bathory" and "Zeny v pokuseni". Nevertheless, we can see the increasing trend in the box office revenues of Czech movies since the year This could have been caused by the lack of movie hits, economic or social factors.

For example, the average price of a ticket is constantly growing while average families experienced an economic decline; therefore, the spending priorities were set differently. Redistribution of Box Office Revenues Table 12 and Figure 17 show the example of revenues distribution of an average Czech movie.

Jan Sverak. CinemArt Discussion Uploading film products and providing them over the Internet is a behavior driven by various motivational factors that lead individuals to engage in digital film piracy. It is a modern phenomenon. The act of stealing a wallet or a car is run by direct motivational factor — it is the need for the money or thing itself that can make someone a criminal.

Understanding the factors that influence film pirates cannot be summarized by just economic price-related factor; dozens of various influencing factors exist.

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