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This article has been deleted on Wikipedia Why? Please click Add in the dialog above. Please click Allow in the top-left corner, then click Install Now in the dialog. Please click Open in the download dialog, then click Install. The Frankish expansion of the Carolingian Empire and the Bavarian expansion in the eastern Alps introduced feudalism and the building of castles to support the growing number of dukedoms and kingdoms.

Castello del Buonconsiglio in Trento , Italy, still has intricate frescoes, excellent examples of Gothic art, in a tower room. Much of the medieval period was a time of power struggles between competing dynasties such as the House of Savoy , the Visconti in northern Italy and the House of Habsburg in Austria and Slovenia. After a series of battles fought in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, more cantons joined the confederacy and by the 16th century Switzerland was well-established as a separate state.

During the Napoleonic Wars in the late 18th century and early 19th century, Napoleon annexed territory formerly controlled by the Habsburgs and Savoys. In , he established the Helvetic Republic in Switzerland; two years later he led an army across the St. Bernard pass and conquered almost all of the Alpine regions. Thus, Savoy built a series of fortifications in the Maurienne valley in order to protect the major alpine passes, such as the col du Mont-Cenis that was even crossed by Charlemagne and his father to defeat the Lombards.

In the 19th century, the monasteries built in the high Alps during the medieval period to shelter travellers and as places of pilgrimage, became tourist destinations. The Benedictines had built monasteries in Lucerne , Switzerland, and Oberammergau ; the Cistercians in the Tyrol and at Lake Constance ; and the Augustinians had abbeys in the Savoy and one in the centre of Interlaken , Switzerland.

Radiocarbon -dated charcoal placed around 50, years ago was found in the Drachloch Dragon's Hole cave above the village of Vattis in the canton of St. Gallen , proving that the high peaks were visited by prehistoric people. Seven bear skulls from the cave may have been buried by the same prehistoric people. The knight reached the summit of Rocciamelone where he left a bronze triptych of three crosses, a feat which he conducted with the use of ladders to traverse the ice.

From his description of a "blue like that of a gentian" sky it is thought that he reached a significantly high altitude. Conrad Gessner was the first naturalist to ascend the mountains in the 16th century, to study them, writing that in the mountains he found the "theatre of the Lord". Albrecht von Haller 's poem Die Alpen described the mountains as an area of mythical purity.

Schiller later wrote the play William Tell , which tells the story the legendary Swiss marksman William Tell as part of the greater Swiss struggle for independence from the Habsburg Empire in the early 14th century. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars , the Alpine countries began to see an influx of poets, artists, and musicians, [] as visitors came to experience the sublime effects of monumental nature. In , Byron , Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife Mary Shelley visited Geneva and all three were inspired by the scenery in their writings.

When Coleridge travelled to Chamonix , he declaimed, in defiance of Shelley, who had signed himself "Atheos" in the guestbook of the Hotel de Londres near Montenvers, [] "Who would be, who could be an atheist in this valley of wonders". By the midth century scientists began to arrive en masse to study the geology and ecology of the region. From the beginning of the 19th century, the tourism and mountaineering development of the Alps began.

In the early years of the " golden age of alpinism " initially scientific activities were mixed with sport, for example by the physicist John Tyndall , with the first ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper being the highlight. In the later years, the " silver age of alpinism ", the focus was on mountain sports and climbing. The first president of the Alpine Club , John Ball , is considered the discoverer of the Dolomites, which for decades were the focus of climbers like Paul Grohmann , Michael Innerkofler and Angelo Dibona.

Austrian-born Adolf Hitler had a lifelong romantic fascination with the Alps and by the s established a home at Berghof , in the Obersalzberg region outside of Berchtesgaden. His first visit to the area was in and he maintained a strong tie there until the end of his life. By many of the Alpine countries were under the control of the Axis powers. Austria underwent a political coup that made it part of the Third Reich; France had been invaded and Italy was a fascist regime.

Switzerland and Liechtenstein were the only countries to avoid an Axis takeover. The Swiss commanders wired the infrastructure leading into the country with explosives, and threatened to destroy bridges, railway tunnels and roads across passes in the event of a Nazi invasion; and if there was an invasion the Swiss army would then have retreated to the heart of the mountain peaks, where conditions were harsher, and a military invasion would involve difficult and protracted battles.

German Ski troops were trained for the war, and battles were waged in mountainous areas such as the battle at Riva Ridge in Italy, where the American 10th Mountain Division encountered heavy resistance in February The salt mines surrounding the Altaussee area, where American troops found 75 kg lb of gold coins stored in a single mine, were used to store looted art, jewels, and currency; vast quantities of looted art were found and returned to the owners.

The largest city within the Alps is the city of Grenoble in France. The population of the region is 14 million spread across eight countries. The Alpine regions are multicultural and linguistically diverse. Dialects are common, and vary from valley to valley and region to region. In the Slavic Alps alone 19 dialects have been identified. Some of the Romance dialects spoken in the French, Swiss and Italian alps of Aosta Valley derive from Arpitan , while the southern part of the western range is related to Occitan ; the German dialects derive from Germanic tribal languages.

Much of the Alpine culture is unchanged since the medieval period when skills that guaranteed survival in the mountain valleys and in the highest villages became mainstays, leading to strong traditions of carpentry, woodcarving, baking and pastry-making, and cheesemaking. Farming has been a traditional occupation for centuries, although it became less dominant in the 20th century with the advent of tourism.

Grazing and pasture land are limited because of the steep and rocky topography of the Alps. In mid-June cows are moved to the highest pastures close to the snowline, where they are watched by herdsmen who stay in the high altitudes often living in stone huts or wooden barns during the summers. Cheesemaking is an ancient tradition in most Alpine countries.

A wheel of cheese from the Emmental in Switzerland can weigh up to 45 kg lb , and the Beaufort in Savoy can weigh up to 70 kg lb. Owners of the cows traditionally receive from the cheesemakers a portion in relation to the proportion of the cows' milk from the summer months in the high alps.

Haymaking is an important farming activity in mountain villages that has become somewhat mechanized in recent years, although the slopes are so steep that scythes are usually necessary to cut the grass. Hay is normally brought in twice a year, often also on festival days. In the high villages, people live in homes built according to medieval designs that withstand cold winters. The kitchen is separated from the living area called the stube , the area of the home heated by a stove , and second-floor bedrooms benefit from rising heat.

The typical Swiss chalet originated in the Bernese Oberland. Chalets often face south or downhill, and are built of solid wood, with a steeply gabled roof to allow accumulated snow to slide off easily. Stairs leading to upper levels are sometimes built on the outside, and balconies are sometimes enclosed. Food is passed from the kitchen to the stube, where the dining room table is placed. Some meals are communal, such as fondue , where a pot is set in the middle of the table for each person to dip into.

Other meals are still served in a traditional manner on carved wooden plates. Furniture has been traditionally elaborately carved and in many Alpine countries carpentry skills are passed from generation to generation. Roofs are traditionally constructed from Alpine rocks such as pieces of schist , gneiss or slate. Commonly made of Norway spruce , they are called "tavaillon". Old traditions are carefully maintained among inhabitants of Alpine areas, even though this is seldom obvious to the visitor: many people are members of cultural associations where the Alpine folk culture is cultivated.

At cultural events, traditional folk costume in German Tracht is expected: typically lederhosen for men and dirndls for women. Visitors can get a glimpse of the rich customs of the Alps at public Volksfeste. Even when large events feature only a little folk culture, all participants take part with gusto.

Good opportunities to see local people celebrating the traditional culture occur at the many fairs, wine festivals and firefighting festivals which fill weekends in the countryside from spring to autumn. Alpine festivals vary from country to country. Frequently they include music e. Schuhplattler , sports e. Many areas celebrate Fastnacht in the weeks before Lent. Folk costume also continues to be worn for most weddings and festivals. The Alps are one of the more popular tourist destinations in the world with many resorts such Oberstdorf , in Bavaria, Saalbach in Austria, Davos in Switzerland, Chamonix in France, and Cortina d'Ampezzo in Italy recording more than a million annual visitors.

With over million visitors a year, tourism is integral to the Alpine economy with much it coming from winter sports, although summer visitors are also an important component. The tourism industry began in the early 19th century when foreigners visited the Alps, travelled to the bases of the mountains to enjoy the scenery, and stayed at the spa-resorts. During this period winter sports were slowly introduced: in the first figure skating championship was held in St. Moritz , and downhill skiing became a popular sport with English visitors early in the 20th century, [] as the first ski-lift was installed in above Grindelwald.

The Lauberhorn is the more strenuous downhill race at 4. During the post-World War I period, ski-lifts were built in Swiss and Austrian towns to accommodate winter visitors, but summer tourism continued to be important; by the midth century the popularity of downhill skiing increased greatly as it became more accessible and in the s several new villages were built in France devoted almost exclusively to skiing, such as Les Menuires.

Until this point, Austria and Switzerland had been the traditional and more popular destinations for winter sports, but by the end of the 20th century and into the early 21st century, France, Italy and the Tyrol began to see increases in winter visitors. Probably due to climate change, the number of ski resorts and piste kilometres has declined since The region is serviced by 4, km 2, mi of roads used by six million vehicles per year.

In , the new With the opening of the Some high mountain villages are car-free either because of inaccessibility or by choice. Wengen , and Zermatt in Switzerland are accessible only by cable car or cog-rail trains. Avoriaz in France , is car-free, with other Alpine villages considering becoming car-free zones or limiting the number of cars for reasons of sustainability of the fragile Alpine terrain.

The lower regions and larger towns of the Alps are well-served by motorways and main roads, but higher mountain passes and byroads, which are amongst the highest in Europe , can be treacherous even in summer due to steep slopes. Many passes are closed in winter. A number of airports around the Alps and some within , as well as long-distance rail links from all neighbouring countries, afford large numbers of travellers easy access.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Major mountain range system in Central Europe. For the German river, see Alpe river. Mont Blanc massif , the highest range of the Alps, view from the Savoy side. Relief of the Alps. See also map with international borders marked. Main article: Geography of the Alps. See also: Principal passes of the Alps. See also: List of Alpine four-thousanders. Main articles: Alpine orogeny and Geology of the Alps. See also: List of glaciers in Switzerland.

Main article: List of valleys of the Alps. Main articles: Climate of the Alps and High Alps. Main article: Alps conifer and mixed forests. Main article: Flora of the Alps. Main article: History of the Alps. Main article: Exploration of the High Alps.

Further information: Transhumance in the Alps and Swiss folklore. The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide. Abington, United Kingdom: Helicon. Retrieved April 12, Alpine Conferences ; retrieved 3 August The river Alpheus in Greek, Christian and Byzantine thought. In Georgius Thilo ed. Servii Grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii carmina commentarii in Latin. May 14, Retrieved April 18, Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved March 9, Encyclopedia Britannica.

Retrieved February 4, Encyclopedia Online Academic Edition. Archived from the original on December 8, Retrieved August 8, Retrieved November 28, Italian Railways. ISBN Tages-Anzeiger graphical animation in German. April 14, Retrieved May 11, April 1, Bern: Swiss Federal Office for Transport.

UIAA-Bulletin March Archived from the original PDF on March 7, July 6, Retrieved August 9, Mountains: Globally Important Eco-systems. Retrieved August 27, Geophysical Research Letters. Bibcode : GeoRL.. ISSN Environmental Research Letters.

Bibcode : ERL Science of the Total Environment. Towards a better understanding of the links between stressors, hazard assessment and ecosystem services under water scarcity. Bibcode : ScTEn. PMID Biodiversity and Conservation , 21 4 : — The Guardian. Commission Internationale pour la Protection des Alpes. Retrieved August 14, November 15, Retrieved October 17, Archived May 27, , at the Wayback Machine Swissworld.

Alpine Convention. The Alps: People and pressures in the mountains, the facts at a glance Allaby, Michael et al. The Encyclopedia of Earth. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Alps: A Cultural History.

New York: Oxford University Press. Environmental Science and Policy. Volume Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention alpconv. Retrieved August 4, Amsterdam: Elsevier. Packs On! Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. Killing Dragons: The Conquest of the Alps. New York: Grove. Boston: MIT Press. Rockville Center, NY: Sarpedon. Havertown, PA: Casemate. In Chisholm, Hugh ed.

Cambridge University Press. Alpine Plant Life. New York: Springer Verlag. Oxford: Blackwell. Hitler's Mountain. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

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