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Actors from the Royal Shakespeare Company join members of the Massachusetts Wampanoag tribe in creating dramatic period reenactments that bring to life the Pilgrims' harrowing journey and first year of survival.
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The French Pilgrim, Hugh Brustins, unfortunately possessed by the Devil, was disappointed to discover on arrival at St. Denis near Paris, that the local French saint had given up curing the sick and that this service was now being provided by St. Thomas ' in order that a new and relatively unknown martyr might make his name. When a blind man was healed at Saintes in France by St Eutrope, what had previously been a town passed by on the route to Santiago de Compostella, became a significant pilgrimage site in its own right.
News would spread wide and far. We know from the records that news of a miracle at St-Gilles in the south of France travelled as far as Poland and Denmark. Above A medieval pilgrim song Practical Considerations. Finally, the pilgrim needed to make an appointment to see his priest. In front of the priest the pilgrim would make a vow to complete his journey. In return the priest would give the pilgrim his blessing.
Having made the vow the pilgrim had to make the journey or face being excommunicated. But only after having made the vow could he or she put on the uniform of the pilgrim. The Pilgrim's Uniform. The origins of the pilgrim's uniform are unknown. Much can be explained by the practical considerations of medieval travel and the need to distinguish yourself clearly as a pilgrim.
The staff and scrip were the earliest parts of the uniform, and both are very practical. The staff had to be made of strong wood, preferably with a metal tip. Apart from its obvious use to someone walking hundreds of kilometers, the staff could be an important means of self defence against wolves or human attackers.
The scrip was a soft pouch, usually made of leather and tied to the pilgrim's waist. The scrip was used to store all the essential belongings: food, money, documents etc. The long tunic or sclavein became part of the pilgrim uniform in the 11th century at the same time as the priests began to bless the pilgrims clothes. In the later Middle Ages the uniform became more elaborate.
They travelled in long often blue robes which served as coats and sleeping bags and wore a wide-brimmed hat. They would also carry some sort of bag or sack, often a book bag, carrying with them some sort of religious book. In the religious ceremony, which very much resembled the 'dubbing' of a knight, the pilgrim would presented with the staff from the altar. This ceremony almost certainly began in imitation of the blessing of the first crusaders In time, the staff, scrip and sclavein were given a religious symbolism: the staff is used to ward off wolves which symbolize the Devil, the scrip is small symbolizing the poverty of the pilgrim and the sclavein's complete covering represents Christ's love for mankind.
Above The blessing of staff and scrip On the way home , a pilgrim would wear a lead badge to show where they had been and to prove they had fulfilled their vow. From the Holy Land a pilgrim would wear a palm, from Rome a set of keys and from Santiago de Compostella on the up-turned brim of the hat, they would pin a shell from the St.
An hundreth of ampulles on his hatt seten, Signes of Synay and the shelles of Galice And many a cruche on his cloke and keyes of Rome, And the vernicle bifore; for men shulde knowe And se bi his signes whom he soughte had. European Medieval Pilgrimage Project - Journey ' There are three acts in a man's life which no one should advise him either to do or not to do. Churches would also compete to attract pilgrims by using a range of different 'advertising' techniques.
Packaging the product was very important, with vast sums spent on the elaborate decoration of shrines and magnificent reliquaries. Pamphlets were written which listed the miracle 'track record' of the saint; jingles and rhymes were composed and preachers were employed to drum up interest around the country. Even primitive 'mail shots' were attempted by the bigger shrines such as Canterbury, which sent out 'flyers' listing St.
Thomas's miracles to other religious centres in England and France. It was not always subtle. One pamphlet reported how a sick Englishman heard a 'voice' at St Peter's at Rome, ' Why are you wasting your time here' it apparently said, 'go back home to England and make your offering at the monastery of St. Egwin at Evesham, for there alone will you be healed. If a pilgrim wanted to undertake a long distance pilgrimage and expected to travel comfortably, they had to expect a very big bill.
Many rich pilgrims needed a year's income and were forced to sell their land to the church. Although the religious authorities recommended that true pilgrimage should be undertaken in poverty and on foot, many richer pilgrims did not. German pilgrims in particular were notorious for travelling in style, as many thieves noted.
Poorer pilgrims would have to live on the charity of people who provided alms. The Pilgrim's Uniform The origins of the pilgrim's uniform are unknown. Most other sites soon started selling souvenir badges which usually represented a famous miracle associated with the patron saint. Some well travelled pilgrims would have hats covered in the badges the many shrines they had visited.
The English medieval poet, William Langland cc , wrote of a pilgrim in Piers Plowman who: An hundreth of ampulles on his hatt seten, Signes of Synay and the shelles of Galice And many a cruche on his cloke and keyes of Rome, And the vernicle bifore; for men shulde knowe And se bi his signes whom he soughte had. Above A 16th century Pilgrim's mantelet The distinctiveness of the uniform was important because it entitled the wearer to be treated as a pilgrim.
This was supposed to guarantee the safety of the pilgrim along the road and to give them admission to the many shelters and hospices that had sprung up along the bigger roads. The Experience - Travel overland Long distance travel whether overland or by sea was very difficult and could be dangerous.
If travelling overland you faced the problem of very poor quality paths that were badly signposted, if at all. Where roads were well maintained, the chances are you would be expected to pay a fee or toll for their use. Even an experienced rider on horseback could only expect to cover 50 kilometers a day. The 12th century guidebook The Guide for Pilgrims to Santiago described some of the dangers that the pilgrim faced including thick forests, mosquito infested marshes, wild animals, impassable rivers and undrinkable water.
Supplies of water and drink were a constant problem and would be pilgrims were advised not to travel at certain times of year. The food in Gascony, in the south of France was excellent but Spain was different: 'i f anyone can eat their fish without being sick, then he must have a stronger constitution than most of us '. Sumption: Although punishments for attacking pilgrims were very harsh, it did not stop pilgrims being attacked by robbers and bandits.
In northern Italy the problem was with German robbers, in northern Spain on the routes to Santiago, the bandits tended to be English. By far the most dangerous route was the pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The overland route became possible in the 11th and 12th century as a result of Christian conversion and conquest in south east Europe and Holy Land. But it was always dangerous. The route from Joppa to Jerusalem was notorious. An English pilgrim who travelled the route in described how the Arabs ' lay hidden in caves and crevices, waiting day and night for people travelling in small groups or straggling behind their groups.
At one moment they are everywhere, the next they are gone. Above Wolves attacking pilgrims, Museum of Roncevaux above Pilgrims being attacked in the Holy Land The Experience - Travel by sea The alternative to the overland route was to travel by sea.
Travelling long distances by boat in the Middle Ages was not an easy option. As with the overland route, it was also dangerous, extremely uncomfortable and had the additional inconvenience of being very boring. The journey from Venice to the Holy Land would take six weeks or more. In addition to the obvious threat of shipwreck, there was also the problem of piracy.
The frustrated and exhausted Pilgrims docked at Plymouth and made the difficult decision to ditch the Speedwell. Some of the Pilgrims also called it quits in Plymouth, but the rest of the passengers and cargo from the Speedwell were transferred to the already overcrowded Mayflower.
The Mayflower was about feet long from stem to stern and just 24 feet wide. In addition to its passengers, the Mayflower carried a crew of 37 men—sailors, cooks, carpenters, surgeons and officers. Between the masts, storage rooms and the shallop, the total available living space for people measured only 58 feet by 24 feet. The passengers practically slept on top of each other, with families erecting small wooden dividers and hanging curtains for a semblance of privacy. The journey was difficult enough for seasoned sailors, nevermind novices like the Pilgrims.
Mealtime on the Mayflower brought little to celebrate. The cooks would have run out of fresh food just days into the journey and instead relied on salted pork, dried fish and other preserved meats. Since regular bread would spoil too quickly, they served hardtack biscuits, jaw-breaking bricks made from flour, water and salt. Subsisting on small rations of salted meats and beer, the Pilgrims would have been malnourished, dehydrated, weak and susceptible to scurvy.
After a month of relatively calm seas and smooth sailing, the Mayflower encountered the first of an unrelenting series of North Atlantic storms that buffeted and battered the ship for weeks. The crew was forced on several occasions to lower the sails and let the Mayflower bob helplessly in the towering waves. Whether Bradford was talking about a cracked mast or another type of wooden beam is unclear, but the damage was serious enough for the Pilgrims to call a meeting with the captain to discuss turning back.
But then something remarkable happened. Working quickly, the crew pulled Howland close enough to the ship to snag him with a hook and haul the foolhardy young man back onto the deck. Harold M. Bradford makes only passing mention of the one death on the Mayflower. A young boy named William Butten, an indentured servant to one of the Pilgrims, fell ill during the journey and died just a few days shy of reaching the New World. Given the dangers of the journey and the rough conditions aboard the Mayflower, it was a miracle that only one person out of perished on the day voyage.
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